AFRICAN

ORCHIDS

Dendrobium Sw., Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal. 6: 82 (1799), nom. cons.
Synonyms:
Callista Lour., Fl. Cochinch.: 519 (1790).
Ceraia Lour., Fl. Cochinch.: 518 (1790).
Aporum Blume, Bijdr.: 334 (1825).
Grastidium Blume, Bijdr.: 333 (1825).
Macrostomium Blume, Bijdr.: 335 (1825).
Onychium Blume, Bijdr.: 323 (1825).
Pedilonum Blume, Bijdr.: 320 (1825).
Schismoceras C.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1: 96 (1827).
Thelychiton Endl., Prodr. Fl. Norfolk.: 32 (1833).
Keranthus Lour. ex Endl., Gen. Pl.: 193 (1836).
Endeisa Raf., Fl. Tellur. 2: 51 (1837).
Tropilis Raf., Fl. Tellur. 2: 95 (1837).
Ditulima Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 41 (1838).
Froscula Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 44 (1838).
Ormostema Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 38 (1838).
Thicuania Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 47 (1838).
Bolbidium Lindl., Veg. Kingd.: 181 (1846).
Latourea Blume, Rumphia 4: 41 (1849).
Aclinia Griff., Not. Pl. Asiat. 3: 320 (1851).
Dichopus Blume, Mus. Bot. 2: 176 (1856).
Stachyobium Rchb.f., Gard. Chron. 1869: 785 (1869).
Coelandria Fitzg., Austral. Orch. 1(7): t. 2 (1882).
Sayeria Kraenzl., Oesterr. Bot. Z. 44: 298 (1894).
Goldschmidtia Dammer, Orchis 4: 86 (1910).
Inobulbum Schltr. & Kraenzl. in H.G.A.Engler (ed.), Pflanzenr., IV, 50(45): 316 (1910).
Amblyanthus (Schltr.) Brieger, Schlechter Orchideen 1(11-12): 686 (1981), nom. illeg.
Australorchis Brieger, Schlechter Orchideen 1(11-12): 741 (1981).
Conostalix (Kraenzl.) Brieger, Schlechter Orchideen 1(11-12): 659 (1981).
Dendrocoryne (Lindl.) Brieger, Schlechter Orchideen 1(11-12): 724 (1981), nom. inval.
Dockrillia Brieger, Schlechter Orchideen 1(11-12): 745 (1981).
Dolichocentrum (Schltr.) Brieger, Schlechter Orchideen 1(11-12): 659 (1981).
Eriopexis (Schltr.) Brieger, Schlechter Orchideen 1(11-12): 656 (1981).
Euphlebium (Kraenzl.) Brieger, Schlechter Orchideen 1(11-12): 722 (1981).
Herpetophytum (Schltr.) Brieger, Schlechter Orchideen 1(11-12): 660 (1981).
Kinetochilus (Schltr.) Brieger, Schlechter Orchideen 1(11-12): 686 (1981).
Latourorchis Brieger, Schlechter Orchideen 1(11-12): 727 (1981).
Microphytanthe (Schltr.) Brieger, Schlechter Orchideen 1(11-12): 742 (1981).
Monanthos (Schltr.) Brieger, Schlechter Orchideen 1(11-12): 660 (1981).
Trachyrhizum (Schltr.) Brieger, Schlechter Orchideen 1(11-12): 687 (1981).
Amblyanthe Rauschert, Feddes Repert. 94: 436 (1983).
Cannaeorchis M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, Lasianthera 1: 132 (1997 publ. 1998).
Winika M.A.Clem., D.L.Jones & Molloy, Orchadian 12: 214 (1997).
Tetrodon (Kraenzl.) M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, Orchadian 12: 310 (1998).
Aporopsis (Schltr.) M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, Orchadian 13: 485 (2002).
Bouletia M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, Orchadian 13: 485 (2002).
Cepobaculum M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, Orchadian 13: 486 (2002).
Ceratobium (Lindl.) M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, Orchadian 13: 486 (2002).
Chromatotriccum M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, Orchadian 13: 493 (2002).
Davejonesia M.A.Clem., Orchadian 13: 487 (2002).
Dendrobates M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, Orchadian 13: 387 (2002).
Distichorchis M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, Orchadian 13: 487 (2002).
× Dockrilobium J.M.H.Shaw, Orchid Rev. 110(Suppl.): 83 (2002).
Durabaculum M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, Orchadian 13: 487 (2002).
Eleutheroglossum (Schltr.) M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, Orchadian 13: 489 (2002).
Eurycaulis M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, Orchadian 13: 490 (2002).
Exochanthus M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, Orchadian 13: 496 (2002).
Ichthyostomum D.L.Jones, M.A.Clem. & Molloy, Orchadian 13: 499 (2002).
Leioanthum M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, Orchadian 13: 490 (2002).
Maccraithea M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, Orchadian 13: 496 (2002).
Oxyglossellum M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, Orchadian 13: 490 (2002).
Stelbophyllum D.L.Jones & M.A.Clem., Orchadian 13: 490 (2002), orth. var.
Stilbophyllum D.L.Jones & M.A.Clem., Orchadian 13: 490 (2002).
Tetrabaculum M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, Orchadian 13: 490 (2002).
× Vappaculum M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, Orchadian 13: 492 (2002).
Vappodes M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, Orchadian 13: 492 (2002).
Anisopetala (Kraenzl.) M.A.Clem., Telopea 10: 283 (2003).
Description:
Tufted epiphytic herbs. Stems terete, nodose, fleshy or not, erect or pendulous, often thickened and forming short pseudobulb, sometimes partly dilated into several pseudobulbs, mostly surrounded by tight, persistent sheaths. Leaves coriaceous or subcoriaceous, entire, flat or rarely subterete and laterally flattened, often articulate with sheaths. Inflorescence terminal or lateral, from nodes of stem, racemose or flower solitary, rarely cymose; peduncle obscure or shorter than pedicel; bracts minute. Flowers resupinate; sepals subequal, dorsal one free, lateral ones often oblique at base and adnate to foot of column and forming spur-like or saccate mentum; petals more or less similar to dorsal sepal; lip various, attached to and usually incumbent on foot of column, contracted or clawed at base, often 3-lobed; lateral lobes erect, embracing column; column short, with prominent foot; anther terminal, incumbent, 2celled; pollinia 4, ovoid or oblong, waxy, connate laterally in pairs in each cell, without caudicle or viscidium; rostellum usually hooked below. Capsules ovoid to oblong.
Distribution:

Trop. & Subtrop. Asia to Pacific and New Zealand.
Cultivation:
Dendrobium - Cool-growing species
Dendrobium - Intermediate-growing species
Dendrobium - Warmer-growing species
Species:

Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. Trop. & Subtrop. Asia

World Checklist of Monocotyledons. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.kew.org/wcsp/monocots/ accessed 2/1/2010
Bibliography and References:
Adams PB, Burke JM, Lawson SD. 2006 Dendrobium speciosum Sm., the great Dendrobium, is a single-species complex. Orchadian 15. ( 5): 208-240.
Armstrong M. 2000 An introduction to the genus Dendrobium; Dendrobium anosmum. Orchid Rev. 108. (1235): 295-298 (2000)
Armstrong M. 2001 Dendrobium chrysanthum Wallich ex Lindley. Orchid Rev. 109. (1241): 277-279 (2001)
Aubron M. 2005 Cultivating Dendrobium section Formosae. Orchid Rev. 113. 136-139 E
Averyanov L. 2004 Dendrobium tuananhii. Orchids (USA) 73. (2): 134-136 (2004)
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Erfkamp J. 2004 Dendrobium - Sektion Dendrobium Teil 2. Orchidee 55. (3): 343-349 (2004)
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Field L. 2001 Dendrobium speciosum Smith 1804. J. Native Orchid Soc. S. Australia 25. (8): 76-77 (2001)
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Rudkin R. 2001 The genus Dendrobium: are there problems? Orchadian 13. (7): 325-326 (2001)
Spence P. 2004 Dendrobium sikini Schltr. Orchadian 14. 440-443
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Wood HP. 2007, [2008] Dendrobium Swartz section Herbacea Kranzlin (Orchidaceae). Selbyana 28. (2): 117-122.