Calanthe R. Brown, Bot. Reg. 7: sub t. 573 ('578'). 1821, nom. cons.
Alismorchis Thouars in Hist. Orchid.: t. 35 (1822), orth. var.
Alismorkis Thouars in Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1: 318 (1809), nom. rej.
Amblyglottis Blume in Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind.: 369 (1825)
Aulostylis Schltr. in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 1: 392 (1912)
Calanthidium Pfitzer in H.G.A.Engler & K.A.E.Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 2(6): 153 (1888)
Centrosia A.Rich. in Mém. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 4: 39 (1828)
Centrosis Sw. ex Thouars in Hist. Orchid.: t. 35 (1822), nom. superfl.
Cephalantheropsis Guillaumin in Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., sér. 2, 32: 188 (1960)
Cyanorkis Thouars in Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1: 317 (1809)
Gastorkis Thouars in Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1: 317 (1809)
Gastrorchis Schltr. in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 33: 167 (1924)
Ghiesbreghtia A.Rich. & Galeotti in Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 3, 3: 28 (1845)
Hecabe Raf. in Fl. Tellur. 4: 44 (1838)
Limatodis Blume in Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind.: 375 (1825)
Pachyne Salisb. in Trans. Hort. Soc. London 1: 299 (1812)
Paracalanthe Kudô in J. Soc. Trop. Agric. 2: 235 (1930)
Paraphaius J.W.Zhai & F.W.Xing in Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 77: 221 (2014)
Pesomeria Lindl. in Edwards's Bot. Reg. 24(Misc.): 5 (1838)
Phaius Lour. in Fl. Cochinch.: 529 (1790), nom. rej. prop.
Phajus Hassk. in Cat. Hort. Bot. Bogor. Alt.: 41 (1844), orth. var.
Preptanthe Rchb.f. in Fl. Serres Jard. Eur. 8: 245 (1853)
Styloglossum Breda in Gen. Sp. Orchid. Asclep. 2: t. 7 (1829)
Tankervillia Link in Handbuch 1: 251 (1829)
Zeduba Ham. ex Meisn. in Pl. Vasc. Gen. 2: 280 (1842), pro syn.
Zoduba Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don in Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 30 (1825), pro syn.
Sepals subequal, free, usually widely spreading. Petals like the sepals or narrower. Lip usually more or less adnate to the column; limb spreading, 3-lobed, with the terminal one often deeply bilobed, disc variously callous or lamellate; base mostly extended into a slender spur (in the African ones invariably so). Column short, without a foot; wings usually united to the sides of the column. Anther sub terminal, operculate, incumbent, 2-celled; pollinia 8, oblong or obovate, somewhat compressed, the caudicles often somewhat attenuate and united by a viscid appendage. Capsules elliptical-oblong. —Terrestrial herbs, with short leafy stems, sometimes pseudo bulbous at the base. Leaves 2 to several, petiolate; limb elliptical- to oblong-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, plicate. Scapes erect from the rhizome, often tall, with a number of sheaths towards the base. Flowers in dense or loose racemes, usually showy. Bracts lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate.
Trop. & Subtrop. Old World to Pacific, Mexico to Colombia, Caribbean
Calanthe culture is divided into two groups: deciduous and evergreen plants. The first normally have huge pseudobulbs, the evergreen plants have smaller pseudobulbs or completely lack them in some species. These two groups have been assigned into 2 subgenera: Eucalanthe for the deciduous and Preptanthe for the evergreen plants. This classification has been around since Seidenfaden, 1975 ) and there is a revision anticipated - their mutual exclusion in hybridisation shows a genetic base for further separation. If the above is not available success can also be had with an ordinary fine bark mix and crushed stone/grit. Rockwool (Steinmix) is also an option where growing conditions are controlled.
Deciduous plants have a seasonal clock: a dormancy that reduces the plant to its pseudobulbs and roots, followed by flowering in the start of dormancy and growth of leaves in spring that die of at the start of the following dormancy.
Evergreen Calanthe can be divided into two groups for culture: those that require a tropical to sub-tropical environment with an elevated minimum-temperature and the temperate ones from the semi-shaded humus-rich soils on the slopes of Cryptomeria woodlands in Japan. The latter species are very popular in culture in Asia.
The temperate species require a free-draining soil with quite a bit of nutritional reserve: 1 part coarse drainage material is mixed with an equal amount of peat. To this add 2 parts of sifted standard orchid mix and 2 parts of aged leafmould.
POWO (2022). "Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/ Retrieved 19 November 2022."
Bibliography and References:
Anon. 1999 Calanthe triplicata (Willemet) Ames. J. Native Orchid Soc. S. Australia 23. (3): 29 (1999)
Field L. 2003 Calanthe triplicata Willemet 1907. J. Native Orchid Soc. S. Australia 27. (6): 60 (2003)
Jennings C. 1997 The genus Calanthe. Orchids Austral. 9. (4): 10-11 (1997)
Mr. Frikkie Marais. Website: Crowing Calanthe
Seidenfaden, G. 1975. Orchid genera in Thailand I. Calanthe R.Br. Dansk Bot. Ark. 29(2): 1 - 50
Expansion of Calanthe to include the species of Cephalantheropsis, Gastrorchis and Phaius (Collabieae; Orchidaceae), Vol. 472 No. 2: 23 November 2020 Phytotaxa