AFRICAN

ORCHIDS

Ceratandra Eckl. & F.A.Bauer, Ill. Orch. Pl.: t. 16 (1837).
Synonyms:
Ceratandropsis Rolfe in W.H.Harvey & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Cap. 5(3): 266 (1913).
Evota Rolfe in W.H.Harvey & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Cap. 5(3): 268 (1913).
Description:
Plants small terrestrial herbs perennating with a cluster of swollen roots; stem slender to fairly robust, to 430 mm; leaves usually dimorphic: rosette of narrowly linear or lanceolate basal leaves mostly present, cauline leaves spaced along stem, linear to linear-attenuate, acute. Inflorescences terminal, lax to dense, 6-many-flowered; bracts narrowly triangular to triangular, acute to acuminate, glabrous to ciliate, about as long as the ovary. Flowers resupinate or not, greenish-yellow to green, orange, pink and white. Median sepal narrowly lanceolate, adnate to the petals; lateral sepal oblique to elliptic, subacute to obtuse, con-cave. Petals deltate-spathulate, acute to obtuse, concave. Lip spathulate; blade more or less anchor-shaped, semi-circular, often with a small callus; with or without appendage. Pollinia 2, sec-tile; stigma lobes ovate to elliptic, pulvinate, at the base of the rostellar arms; rostellum flat and covering the anther thecae, viscidia terminal.
Type species: Ceratandra atrata (L.) T.Durand & Schinz
Distribution:
Endemic to the western and southern parts of the Cape Floristic Region.
Notes:
Ceratandra is characterized by its unusual underground organs, by the callus on the lip blade (although this is absent in a few species), and by the pendent anther (Kurzweil et al. 1991).C. bicolor and C. harveyana have resupinate flowers with a large bilobed lip appendage, and were previously separated as Evota (Rolfe 1913; Stewart et al. 1982). These two species share at anchor-shaped lip, the linear cauline leaves and the basal cluster of linear-lanceolate leaves with the other species of Ceratandra and have been reduced to sectional rank (sect. Evota) (Kurzweil et al. 1991). C. venosa has at various times been included in Corycium and Pterygodium as it is very atypical in its flower and rostellum structure. Kurzweil et al. (1991) included C. venosa in Ceratandra but as the monotypic section Venosa. In the past the underground organs of Ceratandra were often referred to as 'clusters of thickened roots', while tubers were considered to be lacking.
Cultivation:
Not in cultivation:
Ceratandra sect. Ceratandra

Description:
Frequently with a basal cluster of linear or lanceolate leaves. Inflorescence with many medium-sized non-resupinate yellow or white and pink flowers. Lip appendage minute or missing; gynostemium with a short column-part; thecae close to each other, anther canals rather long, stout and diverging.
Three species in marshes in the mountains of the Western Cape.
Species:

Ceratandra atrata (L.) T.Durand & Schinz SW. & S. Cape Prov.
Ceratandra globosa Lindl. SW. & S. Cape Prov.
Ceratandra grandiflora Lindl. S. Cape Prov.

World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.kew.org/wcsp/ accessed 1/16/2010
Ceratandra sect. Evota Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl.:363 (1838)
Type species: Ceratandra harveyana Lindl.,

Description:
Frequently with a basal c1uster of linear or lanceolate leaves. Inflorescence lax, with medium-sized resupinate, yellow flowers. Lip appendage prominent, deeply 2-lobed; thecae close to each other, anther canals flattened and diverging.
Two rare species in fynbos in the Western Cape.
Species:

Ceratandra bicolor Sond. ex Bolus SW. Cape Prov.
Ceratandra harveyana Lindl. SW. Cape Prov.

World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.kew.org/wcsp/ accessed 1/16/2010
Ceratandra sect. Venosa Kurzweil & H.P. Linder in Pl. Syst. Evol. 175: 214 (1991).
Type species: Ceratandra venosa (Lindl.) Schltr.,

Description:
Inflorescence with many small resupinate flowers. Lip appendage bilobed and elongate; thecae at the far comers of an elongate connective.
A single rare species in fynbos in the Western Cape.
Species:

Ceratandra venosa (Lindl.) Schltr. SW. Cape Prov.

World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.kew.org/wcsp/ accessed 1/16/2010
Bibliography and References:
Kurzweil H, Linder HP, Chesselet P. 1991 The phylogeny and evolution of the Pterygodium-Corycium complex (Coryciinae, Orchidaceae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 175. 161-223.
Kurzweil H, Linder HP, Stern WL, Pridgeon AM. 1995 Comparative vegetative anatomy and classification of Diseae (Orchidaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 117. 171-220.
Kurzweil H. 1991 The unusual structure of the gynostemium in the Orchidaceae-Coryciinae. Bot. Jb. 112. 273-93.
Linder HP, Kurzweil H. 1994 The phylogeny and classification of the diseae (Orchidoideae: Orchidaceae). Ann. missouri Bot. Gard. 81. 687-713.
Steiner KE. 1998 The evolution of beetle pollination in a South African orchid. Amer. J. Bot. 85. (8): 1180-1193 (1998)