AFRICAN

ORCHIDS

Platanthera L. C. Richard, De Orchid. Eur. 20. 1817, nom. cons.
Synonyms:
Lysias Salisb., Trans. Hort. Soc. London 1: 288 (1812).
Sieberia Spreng., Anleit. Kenntn. Gew., ed. 2, 2(1): 282 (1817).
Mecosa Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind.: 403 (1825).
Diplanthera Raf., Herb. Raf.: 73 (1833), nom. illeg.
Tulotis Raf., Herb. Raf.: 70 (1833).
Perularia Lindl., Edwards's Bot. Reg. 20: t. 1701 (1834).
Blephariglottis Raf., Fl. Tellur. 2: 38 (1837).
Conopsidium Wallr., Linnaea 14: 147 (1840).
Diphylax Hook.f., Hooker's Icon. Pl. 19: t. 1865 (1889).
Limnorchis Rydb., Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 1: 104 (1900).
Lysiella Rydb., Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 1: 104 (1900).
Gymnadeniopsis Rydb. in N.L.Britton, Man. Fl. N. States: 293 (1901).
Piperia Rydb., Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 28: 269 (1901).
Denslovia Rydb., Brittonia 1: 85 (1931).
Pseudodiphryllum Nevski in V.L.Komarov (ed.), Fl. URSS 4: 752 (1935).
Smithorchis Tang & F.T.Wang, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol., Bot. 7: 139 (1936).
Fimbriella Farw. ex Butzin, Willdenowia 11: 323 (1981).
× Platanthopsis P.M.Br., N. Amer. Native Orchid J. 8: 37 (2002).
× Blepharopsis Efimov, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 40: 48 (2008 publ. 2009).

Description:
Herbs terrestrial, with fleshy tubers. Stem usually erect, with 1 to several leaves. Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, rarely subopposite, sheathed at base; leaf blade elliptic, ovate-elliptic, or linear-lanceolate. Raceme terminal, few to many flowered; floral bracts usually lanceolate, herbaceous; flowers resupinate, variable in size. Abaxial sepal often connivent with petals forming a hood, concave, short; lateral sepals spreading, reflexed, longer than abaxial sepal. Petals often white or yellowish green, often narrower than sepals; labellum spreading, often linear or ligulate, +/- fleshy, not lobed, both basal sides not or rarely auriculate, with very long or sometimes relatively short spur; column short, thick; anther erect, with 2 parallel or +/- divergent locules, connective conspicuous; pollinia 2, granular-farinaceous, sectile, clavate, each with conspicuous caudicle and naked viscidium; rostellum conspicuous, base with 2 divergent arms; stigma 1, concave, lying below rostellum and fused with its lower part, or on convex surface surrounded by rostellum, sometimes 2, raised, free, on both front sides of mouth of spur; staminodes 2, on both basal sides of anther. Capsule erect.
Distribution:
Macaronesia, N. Africa, Eurasia, N. & C. America, Cuba
Species:

Platanthera algeriensis Batt. & Trab.  E. & SE Spain, Corse, Sardegna, NW. Africa.
Platanthera azorica Schltr.,   
Platanthera bifolia (L.) Rich.  Europe, Medit. to Mongolia.
Platanthera bifolia var. bifolia. Europe, Medit. to Mongolia.
Platanthera chlorantha (Custer) Rchb. Morocco, Europe to N. Iran and N. Israel
Platanthera micrantha (Hochst. ex Seub.) Schltr.  Azores.
Platanthera pollostantha R.M.Bateman & M.Moura,  Azores.

Bibliography and References:
WCSP (2020). 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://wcsp.science.kew.org/ Retrieved 19 May 2020.'
Ayuso JB. 2001 Addendum to the paper: "Platanthera algeriensis Battandier and Trabut in the Iberian Peninsula" by Javier Benito Ayuso in Jour. Eur. Orch. 32(3/4): 513-525, 2000. J. Eur. Orchideen 33. (2): 727-728 (2001)
Blinova IV. 2002 Why does Platanthera bifolia (L.) Rich. (Orchidaceae) have only one green leaf in the extreme north? J. Eur. Orchideen 34. (1): 19-34 (2002)
Pearce N, Cribb PJ, Renz J. 2001 Notes relating to the flora of Bhutan: 34. Taxonomic notes, new taxa and additions to the Orchidaceae of Bhutan and Sikkim (India). Edinburgh J. Bot. 58. (1): 99-122 (2001)
Shaw JMH. 2005 What name for the hybrid Dactylorhiza x Platanthera? Orchid Rev. 113. (1265): 266-267.