AFRICAN

ORCHIDS

Eulophia R.Br. ex Lindl., Bot. Reg. 7: t. 573 (1821)
Synonym:
Wolfia Dennst., Schlüssel Hortus Malab.: 38 (1818).
Eulophus R.Br., Bot. Reg. 6: t. 573 (1821).
Lissochilus Lindl., Bot. Reg. 7: t. 573 (1821).
Cyrtopera Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 189 (1833).
Thysanochilus Falc., Proc. Linn. Soc. London 1: 14 (1839).
Hypodematium A.Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 286 (1850).
Orthochilus Hochst. ex A.Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 284 (1850).
Pteroglossaspis Rchb.f., Otia Bot. Hamburg.: 67 (1878).
Platypus Small & Nash in J.K.Small, Fl. S.E. U.S.: 329 (1903).
Triorchos Small & Nash in J.K.Small, Fl. S.E. U.S.: 329 (1903).
Smallia Nieuwl., Amer. Midl. Naturalist 3: 158 (1913).
Donacopsis Gagnep., Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., II, 4: 593 (1932).
Semiphajus Gagnep., Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., II, 4: 598 (1932).
History:
The genus Eulophia (as Eulophus), a name coined by Robert Brown, was established by Lindley in 1821 in Edwards’s Botanical Register based on Eulophia guineensis, a terrestrial species now known to be widespread in tropical Africa and the Yemen. Lindley changed the name to Eulophia in the same journal in 1823 ‘at the suggestion of its author’. This name was conserved over Eulophus, Eulophia Aghard (1822), and other names (Summerhayes and Hall 1962). Lissochilus, a name given by Robert Brown and described by John Lindley in 1821 in his Collectanea Botanica, was based on Lissochilus speciosus from South Africa. Lindley (1833) commented that this genus ‘is scarcely distinguishable from Eulophia except by the greater disproportion between the sepals and petals’ and established Cyrtopera at the same time, distinguishing it by its ecalcarate but subventricose lip. Both Lissochilus and Cyrtopera have been sunk into synonymy of Eulophia by most recent authors, following Hooker (1890), Summerhayes (1968), and Butzin (1975). Richard (1850) described both Orthochilus and Hypodematium in his Tentamen Florae Abyssinicae, the former based on Orthochilus abyssinicus and the latter on Hypodematium abyssinicum. Both are now also considered congeneric with Eulophia (Durand and Schinz 1895; Rolfe 1897).
Description:
Terrestrial or less commonly lithophytic herbs, chlorophyll deficient (heteromycotrophic) or holomycotrophic. Roots basal, often with a well-defined white velamen. Perennating organ stem-like or pseudobulbous if above ground, rhizomatous or tuberous if subterranean, cylindrical, fusiform, conical or ovoid, homoblastic. Leaves linear, lanceolate, ovate or elliptic, acute to acuminate, coriaceous, articulate or not to a sheathing base; rarely lacking chlorophyll and scale-like in holomycotrophic species. Inflorescence lateral, simple or rarely branching; bracts persistent. Flowers green or brown to coloured, occasionally bicoloured. Dorsal sepal free, oblong, elliptic, lanceolate or oblanceolate, reflexed, erect or porrect; lateral sepals oblique at base and decurrent on column foot, otherwise similar to dorsal sepal. Petals free, similar or dissimilar to sepals, often larger, broader and distinctively coloured compared to sepals. Labellum free to base or fused to base of column, trilobed, spurred at base, lateral lobes free or fused to base of column, midlobe flat or convex; callus two- or three-ridged or papillose. Column usually with a foot; pollinia two, globose, stipe solitary, triangular to oblong, viscidium oblong, elliptic to lunate. Ovary cylindrical, grooved.
Habitat:
Epiphytic in evergreen forest, rarely lithophytic on lava flows, 1300-2350 m (4300-7750 ft.).
Cultivation:
Eulophias are probably the most easily cultivated of all the geophytic southern African orchids, and they are generally most suitably grown in shallow containers in a very well drained medium such as equal parts of coarse river-sand, milled bark and well-rotted compost. The evergreen species are usually easier to grow than the deciduous ones, and evergreens like Eulophia horsfallii, Eulophia streptopetala, Eulophia speciosa and Eulophia petersii can also be successfully grown in gardens under optimum conditions. At Kirstenbosch, Eulophia horsfallii has proved to be a most useful subject for slightly acid, poorly drained loam in dappled shade. It can also be grown in pots, but due to its robust nature, containers need to be deep (a 35 cm diameter plastic pot is ideal) in order to accommodate its vigorous root system. Regular heavy waterings are required every few days during the summer months. The plants remain evergreen when grown in dappled shade, but undergo a very short dormant period in mid-winter when grown in sunny situations. New leaf shoots form in early spring, and flowerbuds may appear at any time during spring and summer. The plants require plenty of organic matter incorporated into the growing medium, and when grown in containers, they benefit greatly from regular applications of seaweed-based liquid fertilizer during summer. Heavy winter rainfall appears to have no ill effect on the plants.
Notes:
Since the revision of Perierer de la Bâthie (1935), there were no attempts to propose a different infrageneric treatment of the genus. In 1965, Hall analyzed South African species of genus Eulophia with methods of numerical taxonomy and proposed groupings, but without any arrangement of sections. Cribb (1989) made a number of groupings within East African species of Eulophia Although he did not propose any ranks or sections, the results of his studies could be a basis for proposing a new infrageneric classification of the genus.
Infrageneric classification of the genus is also complicated by its morphological diversity. Perennating organs may be pseudobulbous or tuberlike. Leaves are thin but tough, narrow and grass-like, or lanceolate and plicate. Some species lack green leaves and are saprophytic. Two types of flowers occur within Eulophia.
In the first type, the sepals and petals are very similar m size, shape and color. In the second one, the sepals are much smaller than the petals and often recurved. In both types, the lip extendes into a spur which can be very diverse in shape. Form of the flower, especially spur, results from the adaptation to different pollinators.
The lip is mostly three-lobed, with crests, and/ or papillae on upper surface, and often with basal callus appendages. Lip can be connated with column, which is arcuate, with or without a column foot. Presence or absence of a column foot seems to the an important character in an infrageneric treatment of Eulophia. Pollinia are in number of four or two.
Problems with exact delimitation of genus Eulophia leads to a situation when problematic species, not matching terms of smaller and well defined allied genera, are arbitrarily included into this genus.

A complete revision of Eulophia is still needed, but a number of detailed regional treatments have been published in recent years, including Hall (1965) for South Africa; Summerhayes (1968) for west Africa; Seidenfaden (1983) for Thailand; Geerinck (1987) for central Africa; Cribb (1989) for east Africa; Seidenfaden (1992) for Indo–China; Cribb and Thomas (1997) for Ethiopia; la Croix and Cribb (1999) for south-central Africa; Szlachetko and Olszewski (1998) for Cameroon; and Du Puy et al. (1999) for Madagascar. Thomas (1998) produced a comprehensive checklist of the species.

Therefore, have I make a key to all species of Eulophia, in this site.

The genus Eulophia in Flora Zambesiaca area (Zimbabwe, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambezi Region of Namibia and the Caprivi Strip)
Key to the genus Eulophia in Flora tropical east Africa (Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania.)
Key to the genus Eulophia in South Africa
Key to the genus Eulophia in Madagascar (Comoros, Réunion)
Key to the genus Eulophia in Ivory Coast
Eulophia species without a key

Bibliography and References:
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