AFRICAN

ORCHIDS

Eulophia R.Br. ex Lindl., Bot. Reg. 7: t. 573 (1821)
Synonym:
Wolfia Dennst., Schlüssel Hortus Malab.: 38 (1818).
Eulophus R.Br., Bot. Reg. 6: t. 573 (1821).
Lissochilus Lindl., Bot. Reg. 7: t. 573 (1821).
Cyrtopera Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 189 (1833).
Thysanochilus Falc., Proc. Linn. Soc. London 1: 14 (1839).
Hypodematium A.Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 286 (1850).
Orthochilus Hochst. ex A.Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 284 (1850).
Pteroglossaspis Rchb.f., Otia Bot. Hamburg.: 67 (1878).
Platypus Small & Nash in J.K.Small, Fl. S.E. U.S.: 329 (1903).
Triorchos Small & Nash in J.K.Small, Fl. S.E. U.S.: 329 (1903).
Smallia Nieuwl., Amer. Midl. Naturalist 3: 158 (1913).
Donacopsis Gagnep., Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., II, 4: 593 (1932).
Semiphajus Gagnep., Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., II, 4: 598 (1932).
The genus Eulophia was established by John Lindley in 1823, but the name had to be conserved against a genus of alga by the same name that was described in the previous year. The name derives from the Greek words eu (well) and lophos (plume), referring to the crests on the lip of many species. Lissochilus was used for those species with sepals differing from the petals, usually being smaller and green, but as more species became known, it was evident that so many were intermediate that the two genera could not be kept separate. Eulophia is a large genus containing more than 250 species throughout the tropics, with most in Africa. Only a few are in cultivation, although many more would be well worth growing.
Description:
Terrestrial, with fleshy roots, pseudobulbs, or underground tubers. Leaves, if present, lanceolate or linear, sometimes pleated, sometimes fleshy. There are a few saprophytic species with only scale leaves, where the whole plant is pale yellow or purplish, but none of these is in cultivation. Inflorescence appears with or before the leaves, arising beside them, few- to many-flowered, usually but not always unbranched. Flowers small or large, often very showy, in almost every color except blue. Sepals and petals different or similar. Lip spurred or at least saccate, usually trilobed but sometimes entire, usually with crests or papillae inside. Column long or short, often somewhat winged, with a short column foot; anther terminal, with an anther cap; pollinia two.
Habitat:
Epiphytic in evergreen forest, rarely lithophytic on lava flows, 1300-2350 m (4300-7750 ft.).
Cultivation:
Many species are not too difficult, providing plants are allowed to follow their own rhythm and are kept dry while resting. Those with pseudobulbs partly above ground, such as Eulophia guineensis and E. streptopetala, tend to be the easiest— it always seems to help when at least something is visible in the resting season! Most species are suited by a well-drained mixture of fine bark, loam, perlag, and sand, good light, and intermediate temperatures.
Notes:
Since the revision of Perierer de la Bâthie, there were no attempts to propose a different infrageneric treatment of the genus. In 1965, Hall analyzed South African species of genus Eulophia with methods of numerical taxonomy and proposed groupings, tut without any arrangement of sections. Cribb (1989) made a number of groupings within East African species of Eulophia Although he did not propose any ranks or sections, the results of his studies could be a basis for proposing a new infrageneric classification of the genus.
Infrageneric classification of the genus is also complicated by its morphological diversity. Perennating organs may be pseudobulbous or tuberlike. Leaves are thin but tough, narrow and grass-like, or lanceolate and plicate. Some species lack green leaves and are saprophytic. Two types of flowers occur within Eulophia.
In the first type, the sepals and petals are very similar m size, shape and color. In the second one, the sepals are much smaller than the petals and often recurved. In both types, the lip extendes into a spur wich can be very diverse in shape. Form of the flower, especially spur, results from the adaptation to different pollinators.
The lip is mostly three-lobed, with crests, and/ or papillae on upper surface, and often with basal callus appendages. Lip can be connated with column, which is arcuate, with or without a column foot. Presence or absence of a column foot seems to tie an important character in an infrageneric treatment of Eulophia. Pollinia are in number of four or two.
Problems with exact delimitation of genus Eulophia leads to a situation when problematic species, not matching terms of smaller and well defined allied genera, are arbitrarily included into this genus.
A complete revision of Eulophia is still needed, but a number of detailed regional treatments have been published in recent years, including Hall (1965) for South Africa; Summerhayes (1968) for west Africa; Seidenfaden (1983) for Thailand; Geerinck (1987) for central Africa; Cribb (1989) for east Africa; Seidenfaden (1992) for Indo–China; Cribb and Thomas (1997) for Ethiopia; la Croix and Cribb (1999) for south-central Africa; Szlachetko and Olszewski (1998) for Cameroon; and Du Puy et al. (1999) for Madagascar. Thomas (1998) produced a comprehensive checklist of the species.

Therefore are all species of Eulophia, in this site listed in alphabetic order below.
Species:

Eulophia × burundiensis Arbonn. & Geerinck Burundi. 
Eulophia × pholelana H.Kurze & O.Kurze S. Africa.
Eulophia abyssinica Rchb.f. NE. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia aculeata (L.f.) Spreng. S. Africa.
Eulophia acutilabra Summerh. S. Zaïre to S. Trop. Africa. 
Eulophia adenoglossa (Lindl.) Rchb.f. Trop. & S. Africa.
Eulophia albobrunnea Kraenzl. Ethiopia.
Eulophia aloifolia Welw. ex Rchb.f. Angola.
Eulophia alta (L.) Fawc. & Rendle Trop. Africa,
Eulophia amblyosepala (Schltr.) Butzin Uganda.
Eulophia angolensis (Rchb.f.) Summerh. Trop. & S. Africa.
Eulophia angornensis (Rchb.f.) P.J.Cribb Comoros.
Eulophia antunesii Rolfe Angola.
Eulophia arenicola Schltr. S. Zaïre to Botswana.
Eulophia aurantiaca Rolfe Burundi to Zambia.
Eulophia barteri Summerh. W. Trop. Africa to Central African Rep.
Eulophia beravensis Rchb.f. Madagascar.
Eulophia biloba Schltr. EC. Mozambique.
Eulophia bisaccata Kraenzl. Mozambique (?).
Eulophia borbonica Bosser Réunion.
Eulophia bouliawongo (Rchb.f.) Nigeria to Angola.
Eulophia brenanii P.J.Cribb & la Croix S. Zaïre to N. Zambia.
Eulophia brevipetala Rolfe W. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia buettneri (Kraenzl.) Summerh. W. Trop. Africa to Cameroon.
Eulophia calantha Schltr. Guinea, Central African Rep. to Uganda and S. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia calanthoides Schltr. S. Africa.
Eulophia callichroma Rchb.f. Tanzania to Swaziland.
Eulophia caricifolia (Rchb.f.) Summerh. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia carsonii Rolfe Tanzania to Zambia.
Eulophia chilangensis Summerh. S. Zaïre to Angola.
Eulophia chlorantha Schltr. SE. Mpumalanga to NW. Swaziland.
Eulophia clandestina (Börge Pett.) Bytebier Angola.
Eulophia clitellifera (Rchb.f.) Bolus Trop. & S. Africa, Madagascar.
Eulophia coccifera Frapp. ex Cordem. Réunion.
Eulophia coddii A.V.Hall  Northern Prov.
Eulophia coeloglossa Schltr. Tanzania to S. Africa.
Eulophia cooperi Rchb.f. S. Africa.
Eulophia corymbosa Schltr. Angola.
Eulophia cristata (Afzel. ex Sw.) Steud. W. Trop. Africa to Ethiopia.
Eulophia cucullata (Afzel. ex Sw.) Steud. Trop. & S. Africa, Madagascar.
Eulophia dactylifera P.J.Cribb S. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia distans (Summerh.) ined. Sierra Leone.
Eulophia divergens Fritsch Angola.
Eulophia elegans Schltr. Cameroon, SW. Tanzania to Malawi.
Eulophia ensata Lindl. Mozambique to S. Africa.
Eulophia ephippium (Rchb.f.) Butzin Madagascar.
Eulophia epiphanoides Schltr. SW. Tanzania.
Eulophia euantha Schltr. Tanzania to S. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia euglossa (Rchb.f.) Rchb.f. ex Bateman W. Trop. Africa to W. Ethiopia and Angola.
Eulophia eustachya (Rchb.f.) Geerinck Ethiopia to Zimbabwe.
Eulophia eylesii Summerh. Rwanda to S. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia eylesii var. auquieriana Geerinck Rwanda to Zaïre.
Eulophia eylesii var. eylesii S. Zaïre to S. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia falcatiloba Szlach. & Olszewski Central African Rep.
Eulophia fernandeziana Geerinck S. Zaïre.
Eulophia filifolia Bosser & Morat Madagascar.
Eulophia flavopurpurea (Rchb.f.) Rolfe Trop. Africa.
Eulophia foliosa (Lindl.) Bolus Zimbabwe to S. Africa.
Eulophia fridericii (Rchb.f.) A.V.Hall Tanzania to Northern Prov.
Eulophia galeoloides Kraenzl. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia gastrodioides Schltr. S. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia gonychila Schltr. Tanzania to S. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia gracilis Lindl. W. Trop. Africa to Angola.
Eulophia grandidieri H.Perrier Madagascar.
Eulophia guineensis Lindl. Cape Verde, Trop. Africa, Arabian Pen.
Eulophia hereroensis Schltr. S. Trop. & S. Africa.
Eulophia hians Spreng., Ethiopia to S. Africa, Madagascar, SW. Arabian Pen.
Eulophia hians var. hians. Zimbabwe to S. Africa
Eulophia hians var. inaequalis (Schltr.) S.Thomas, Zimbabwe to S. Africa
Eulophia hians var. nutans (Sond.) S.Thomas, Ethiopia to S. Africa, Madagascar, SW. Arabian Pen.
Eulophia hirschbergii Summerh. S. Zaïre to Zambia.
Eulophia hologlossa Schltr. E. Madagascar.
Eulophia holubii Rolfe S. Zaïre to N. Botswana.
Eulophia horsfallii (Bateman) Summerh. Trop. & S. Africa
Eulophia huttonii Rolfe S. Africa
Eulophia ibityensis Schltr. SE. Madagascar.
Eulophia juncifolia Summerh. W. Trop. Africa to Chad.
Eulophia katangensis (De Wild.) De Wild. Tanzania to S. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia kyimbilae Schltr. W. Ethiopia to Botswana.
Eulophia latilabris Summerh. Nigeria to Sudan and Bortswana.
Eulophia laurentii (De Wild.) Summerh. Zaïre.
Eulophia leachii Greatrex ex A.V.Hall S. Trop. & S. Africa.
Eulophia lejolyana Geerinck S. Zaïre.
Eulophia leonensis Rolfe W. Trop. Africa to Uganda.
Eulophia leontoglossa Rchb.f. S. Africa.
Eulophia litoralis Schltr. SW. & S. Cape Prov.
Eulophia livingstoneana (Rchb.f.) Summerh. Ethiopia to S. Africa, Comoros, Madagascar.
Eulophia longisepala Rendle Burundi to S. Trop. Africa, KwaZulu-Natal.
Eulophia macaulayi Summerh. Angola to Zambia.
Eulophia macowanii Rolfe E. Cape Prov. to KwaZulu-Natal.
Eulophia macra Ridl. SE. & S. Madagascar.
Eulophia macrantha Rolfe S. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia malangana (Rchb.f.) Summerh. Tanzania to S. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia mangenotiana Bosser & Veyret N. Madagascar.
Eulophia massokoensis Schltr. Tanzania to S. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia mechowii (Rchb.f.) T.Durand & Schinz Nigeria to W. Ethiopia and S.Africa.
Eulophia meleagris Rchb.f. E. Cape Prov. to KwaZulu-Natal.
Eulophia milnei Rchb.f. Trop. & S. Africa.
Eulophia monile Rchb.f. Ivory Coast, Central African Rep. to Tanzania and S. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia monotropis Schltr. Tanzania to Zimbabwe.
Eulophia monticola Rolfe S. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia montis-elgonis Summerh. S. Sudan to Tanzania.
Eulophia mumbwaensis Summerh. W. Tanzania to S. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia nervosa H.Perrier C. Madagascar.
Eulophia nuttii Rolfe Tanzania to Angola.
Eulophia nyasae Rendle Tanzania to S. Trop. Africa. 
Eulophia obscura P.J.Cribb Burundi to S. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia obstipa P.J.Cribb & la Croix Tanzania to Angola.
Eulophia odontoglossa Rchb.f Trop. & S. Africa.
Eulophia orthoplectra (Rchb.f.) Summerh. Trop. Africa
Eulophia ovalis Lindl. Kenya to S. Africa.
Eulophia ovalis var. bainesii (Rolfe) P.J.Cribb & la Croix Kenya to S. Africa.
Eulophia ovalis var. ovalis Zimbabwe to S. Africa.
Eulophia parilamellata Butzin Congo.
Eulophia parviflora (Lindl.) A.V.Hall S. Trop. & S. Africa.
Eulophia parvilabris Lindl. S. Africa.
Eulophia parvula (Rendle) Summerh. Nigeria to Sudan and Zimbabwe.
Eulophia penduliflora Kraenzl. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia perrieri Schltr. NW. Madagascar.
Eulophia petersii (Rchb.f.) Rchb.f. Eritrea to S. Africa, Arabian Pen.
Eulophia pileata Ridl. C. Madagascar.
Eulophia plantaginea (Thouars) Rolfe ex Hochr. W. Indian Ocean.
Eulophia platypetala Lindl. S. Cape Prov.
Eulophia protearum Rchb.f. Angola.
Eulophia pulchra (Thouars) Lindl. Tanzania to Mozambique and W. Pacific.
Eulophia pyrophila (Rchb.f.) Summerh. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia ramifera Summerh. W. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia ramosa Ridl. W. Madagascar.
Eulophia rara Schltr. Tanzania to S. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia reticulata Ridl. Madagascar.
Eulophia rhodesiaca Schltr. Tanzania to S. Trop. Africa. 
Eulophia richardsiae P.J.Cribb & la Croix N. Zambia.
Eulophia rolfeana Kraenzl. S. Zaïre to S. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia rosea (Lindl.) A.D.Hawkes Trop. & S. Africa.
Eulophia rugulosa Summerh. Tanzania to Angola.
Eulophia rutenbergiana Kraenzl. C. & SE. Madagascar
Eulophia ruwenzoriensis Rendle E. Trop. Africa to Zambia, Brazil to NE.Argentina.
Eulophia sabulosa Schltr. Tanzania to S. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia saxicola P.J.Cribb & G.Will. Zambia to Zimbabwe.
Eulophia schaijesii Geerinck S. Zaïre.
Eulophia schweinfurthii Kraenzl Ivory Coast, Ethiopia to Northern Prov.
Eulophia seleensis (De Wild.) Butzin Burundi to S. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia sordida Kraenzl. W. Trop. Africa to Cameroon.
Eulophia speciosa (R.Br. ex Lindl.) Bolus Ethiopia to S. Africa, SW. Arabian Pen.
Eulophia stachyodes Rchb.f. Nigeria to Ethiopia and S. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia stenoplectra Summerh. Ghana, S. Sudan, Uganda.
Eulophia streptopetala Lindl. Eritrea to S. Africa, SW. Arabian Pen.
Eulophia streptopetala var. rueppelii (Rchb.f.) P.J.Cribb Ethiopia, Yemen.
Eulophia streptopetala var. stenophylla (Summerh.) P.J.Cribb E. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia streptopetala var. streptopetala. Eritrea to S. Africa.
Eulophia stricta Rolfe SE. Kenya.
Eulophia subsaprophytica Schltr. Tanzania to S. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia subulata Rendle E. Trop. Africa to Angola.
Eulophia suzannae Geerinck Zaïre.
Eulophia sylviae Geerinck S. Zaïre.
Eulophia tabularis (L.f.) Bolus Cape Prov.
Eulophia taitensis Pfennig & P.J.Cribb E. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia tanganyikensis Rolfe Burundi to Zimbabwe.
Eulophia tenella Rchb.f. S. Trop. & S. Africa.
Eulophia thomsonii Rolfe Tanzania to Zambia.
Eulophia tricristata Schltr. S. Zaïre to Angola.
Eulophia trilamellata De Wild. Tanzania to S. Africa.
Eulophia tuberculata Bolus Tanzania to S. Africa.
Eulophia ukingensis Schltr. Tanzania.
Eulophia venulosa Rchb.f. Tanzania to S. Trop. Africa.
Eulophia versicolor Frapp. ex Cordem. Réunion.
Eulophia walleri (Rchb.f.) Kraenzl. Tanzania to Namibia.
Eulophia welwitschii (Rchb.f.) Rolfe Zaïre to S. Africa.
Eulophia wendlandiana Kraenzl. Madagascar.
Eulophia zeyheriana Sond. S. Africa.

World Checklist of Monocotyledons. (DATE). The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.kew.org/wcsp/monocots/ accessed 1/28/2010
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World Checklist of Monocotyledons. (DATE). The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.kew.org/wcsp/monocots/ accessed 1/28/2010
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