AFRICAN

ORCHIDS

Liparis L. C. Richard, De Orchid. Eur. 21, 30, 38. 1817, nom. cons.
Heterotypic Synonyms:
Leptorkis Thouars, Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1: 317 (1809).
Pseudorchis Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 213 (1821), nom. illeg.
Empusa Lindl., Bot. Reg. 10: t. 825 (1824).
Anistylis Raf., Neogenyton: 4 (1825).
Sturmia Rchb., Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 4: 39 (1826), nom. illeg.
Paliris Dumort., Fl. Belg.: 134 (1827).
Empusaria Rchb., Consp. Regn. Veg.: 69 (1828).
Platystylis Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 18 (1830), nom. illeg.
Diteilis Raf., Herb. Raf.: 73 (1833).
Mesoptera Raf., Herb. Raf.: 73 (1833), nom. rej.
Dituilis Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 49 (1838).
Iebine Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 39 (1838).
Alipsa Hoffmanns., Linnaea 16(Litt.): 228 (1842).
Apation Blume ex Ridl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 22: 279 (1886).
Platystyliparis Marg., Richardiana 7: 35 (2006).
Description:
Herbs terrestrial or epiphytic, usually with pseudobulb, sometimes with multinodal fleshy stem. Pseudobulbs congested or sparse, outside often with membranous sheaths. Leaves 1 to several, basal or cauline (terrestrial spp.), or at apex of pseudobulb or apical nodes (epiphytic spp.), +/- petiolate at base, herbaceous or papery to thickly papery, with several veins, with or without nodes. Flower scape terminal, erect, curved outward or pendulous, often slightly compressed cylindrical and narrowly winged on both sides; raceme sparsely or densely many flowered; floral bracts persistent, small. Flowers resupinate, small or medium-sized. Sepals similar, free or very rarely with two lateral sepals connate, spreading horizontally, reflexed or curved outward. Petals often narrower than sepals, linear to filiform; labellum unlobed or occasionally 3-lobed, sometimes at or below middle contracted, upper part or apex often reflexed, base or middle often with callus, spurless; column +/- arching forward, rarely suberect, usually long, rarely short, upper part often +/- winged on both sides, rarely with 4 wings or wingless, without column foot; anthers overhanging, rarely erect; pollinia 4, forming 2 pairs, waxy, without conspicuous caudicle and viscidium. Capsule globose or other-shaped, often +/- with 3 obtuse ridges.

Type species: Liparis loeselii (L.) L.C. Rich.
Distribution:
In tropical and subtropical regions worldwide.
Cultivation:
The plants are easily maintained in cultivation, either in shallow pots or pans of well-drained epiphyte compost or when well established on pieces of tree fern fibre. They grow best in cool conditions where the temperature drops to 10°C at night or even less. They need to be kept moist in the period of active growth. After flowering the plants should be allowed to dry off while the leaves become thin, turn brown and eventually shrivel or fall. After a further rest a new shoot appears at the base of the old pseudobulb, and watering and feeding should begin again.
Species:

Liparis abyssinica A.Rich. N. & C. Ethiopia.
Liparis ambohimangana Hermans C. Madagascar.
Liparis andringitrana Schltr. SC. Madagascar.
Liparis anthericoides H.Perrier Madagascar.
Liparis ascendens P.J.Cribb WC. Trop. Africa.
Liparis bathiei Schltr. C. Madagascar.
Liparis bernieri Frapp. ex Cordem. Réunion, C. Madagascar.
Liparis bicornis Ridl. C. Madagascar.
Liparis bowkeri Harv. Ethiopia to S. Africa.
Liparis bulbophylloides H.Perrier E. Madagascar.
Liparis caillei Finet W. Trop. Africa to Uganda.
Liparis capensis Lindl. SW. & S. Cape Prov.
Liparis caulescens Frapp. ex Cordem. Réunion.
Liparis cespitosa (Lam.) Lindl. Tanzania to Mozambique and S. Pacific
Liparis chimanimaniensis G.Will. Zimbabwe (Chimanimani Mts.).
Liparis cladophylax Schltr. N. Madagascar.
Liparis clareae Hermans C. Madagascar.
Liparis clareae var. angustifolia H.Perrier ex Hermans EC. Madagascar.
Liparis clareae var. clareae NC. & C. Madagascar.
Liparis deistelii Schltr. WC. & E. Trop. Africa to W. Ethiopia and Malawi.
Liparis densa Schltr. SE. Madagascar.
Liparis dryadum Schltr. N. Madagascar.
Liparis epiphytica Schltr. W. Trop. Africa to Uganda.
Liparis flammula Frapp. ex Cordem. Réunion.
Liparis flavescens (Thouars) Lindl. W. Indian Ocean.
Liparis goodyeroides Schltr. São Tomé, Príncipe, Nigeria to SW. Cameroon.
Liparis gracilenta Dandy São Tomé, Príncipe, Cameroon to Gabon.
Liparis gracilipes Schltr. N. Madagascar.
Liparis harketii Killmann & Eb.Fisch. Rwanda.
Liparis hemipilioides Schltr. Mozambique.
Liparis henrici Schltr. C. & SE. Madagascar.
Liparis imerinensis Schltr. C. & SE. Madagascar.
Liparis jumelleana Schltr. N. & E. Madagascar.
Liparis latialata Mansf. Tanzania to Zimbabwe.
Liparis letouzeyana Szlach. & Olszewski Cameroon.
Liparis listeroides Schltr. Madagascar.
Liparis longicaulis Ridl. Madagascar.
Liparis longipetala Ridl. SC. Madagascar.
Liparis lutea Ridl. SC. Madagascar.
Liparis microcharis Schltr. C. Madagascar.
Liparis molendinacea G.Will. N. Zambia.
Liparis mulindana Schltr. Gabon to Tanzania and S. Trop. Africa.
Liparis nectarina Frapp. ex Cordem. Réunion.
Liparis nephrocardia Schltr. N. & ENE. Madagascar.
Liparis nervosa (Thunb.) Lindl. Trop. & Subtrop.
Liparis nervosa subsp. nervosa Trop. & Subtrop.
Liparis nyikana G.Will. Tanzania to N. Malawi.
Liparis ochracea Ridl. Madagascar.
Liparis ornithorrhynchos Ridl. C. & E. Madagascar.
Liparis panduriformis H.Perrier N. Madagascar.
Liparis parva Ridl., J. Linn. C. Madagascar.
Liparis perrieri Schltr. Madagascar.
Liparis perrieri var. perrieri Madagascar.
Liparis perrieri var. trinervia H.Perrier ex Hermans ENE. Madagascar.
Liparis platyglossa Schltr. W. Trop. Africa to Uganda.
Liparis puncticulata Ridl. N. & C. Madagascar.
Liparis punctilabris Frapp. ex Cordem. Réunion.
Liparis rectangularis H.Perrier ENE. Madagascar.
Liparis remota J.Stewart & Schelpe S. Cape Prov. to Swaziland.
Liparis rivalis Schltr. N. Madagascar.
Liparis rosseelii Stévart São Tomé.
Liparis rungweensis Schltr. S. Tanzania to E. Zambia.
Liparis salassia (Pers.) Summerh. W. Indian Ocean
Liparis sambiranoensis Schltr. N. Madagascar.
Liparis scaposa Frapp. ex Cordem. Réunion.
Liparis stenophylla Schltr. N. Madagascar.
Liparis stolzii Schltr. Tanzania.
Liparis suborbicularis Summerh. S. Nigeria to Gabon.
Liparis tridens Kraenzl. Trop. Africa.
Liparis trulliformis Schltr. N. Madagascar.
Liparis verrucosa Frapp. ex Cordem. Réunion.
Liparis warpurii Rolfe SC. Madagascar.
Liparis xanthina Ridl. SC. Madagascar.
Liparis zaratananae Schltr. N. Madagascar.

World Checklist of Monocotyledons. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.kew.org/wcsp/monocots/ accessed 1/16/2010
Bibliography and References:
Cootes J. 2000 Liparis latifolia (Bl.) Lindl. Austral. Orchid Rev. 65. (6): 41 (2000)
Cribb P, Whistler A. 2004 A new Liparis species (Orchidaceae) from Samoa. Kew Bull. 59. (2): 321-323 (2004)
Kowalkowska A, Margonska HB. 2009 Diversity of labellar micromorphological structures in selected species of Malaxidinae (Orchidales). Acta Soc. Bot. Pol. 78. 141-150.
Margonska HB, Szlachetko DL. 2004 Disticholiparis Marg. & Szlach. - a new genus of the subtribe Malaxidinae. Orchidee 55. (2): 175-179 (2004)
McCartney C. 2000 African affinities: part 1. The surprising relationships of some of Florida's wild orchids. Orchids 69. (2): 130-139 (2000)
Ormerod P. 2005 Notes on Papuasian orchids. Orchadian 14. 563-565
Rice R. 2004 Liparis L.C.Rich. Orchid Rev. 112. (1260): 344-346, 369 (2004)
Szlachetko D. L. 1993. A new Liparis (Orchidaceae, Malaxidinae) from Tropical West Africa. - Fragm. Flor. Geobot. , Suppl. 2(1): 211-212.
Wood J, Bell S. 2002 Plant portraits: 440. Liparis latifolia. Orchidaceae. Curtis's Bot. Mag. 19. (2): 88-91 (2002)