Liparis L. C. Richard, De Orchid. Eur. 21, 30, 38. 1817, nom. cons.
Leptorkis Thouars, Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1: 317 (1809).
Pseudorchis Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 213 (1821), nom. illeg.
Empusa Lindl., Bot. Reg. 10: t. 825 (1824).
Anistylis Raf., Neogenyton: 4 (1825).
Sturmia Rchb., Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 4: 39 (1826), nom. illeg.
Paliris Dumort., Fl. Belg.: 134 (1827).
Empusaria Rchb., Consp. Regn. Veg.: 69 (1828).
Platystylis Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 18 (1830), nom. illeg.
Diteilis Raf., Herb. Raf.: 73 (1833).
Mesoptera Raf., Herb. Raf.: 73 (1833), nom. rej.
Dituilis Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 49 (1838).
Iebine Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 39 (1838).
Alipsa Hoffmanns., Linnaea 16(Litt.): 228 (1842).
Apation Blume ex Ridl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 22: 279 (1886).
Platystyliparis Marg., Richardiana 7: 35 (2006).
Herbs terrestrial or epiphytic, usually with pseudobulb, sometimes with multinodal fleshy stem. Pseudobulbs congested or sparse, outside often with membranous sheaths. Leaves 1 to several, basal or cauline (terrestrial spp.), or at apex of pseudobulb or apical nodes (epiphytic spp.), +/- petiolate at base, herbaceous or papery to thickly papery, with several veins, with or without nodes. Flower scape terminal, erect, curved outward or pendulous, often slightly compressed cylindrical and narrowly winged on both sides; raceme sparsely or densely many flowered; floral bracts persistent, small. Flowers resupinate, small or medium-sized. Sepals similar, free or very rarely with two lateral sepals connate, spreading horizontally, reflexed or curved outward. Petals often narrower than sepals, linear to filiform; labellum unlobed or occasionally 3-lobed, sometimes at or below middle contracted, upper part or apex often reflexed, base or middle often with callus, spurless; column +/- arching forward, rarely suberect, usually long, rarely short, upper part often +/- winged on both sides, rarely with 4 wings or wingless, without column foot; anthers overhanging, rarely erect; pollinia 4, forming 2 pairs, waxy, without conspicuous caudicle and viscidium. Capsule globose or other-shaped, often +/- with 3 obtuse ridges.
From the Greek liparos, shiny or greasy, in allusion to the shiny leaves of the type species Liparis loeselii (L.) L.C. Rich.
Liparis loeselii (L.) L.C. Rich.
The genus has a complex history. Du Petit-Thouars (1809) described Leptorkis and Stichorkis as distinct from Malaxis. He remarked that Leptorkis would include species such as Malaxis loeselii (now Liparis loeselii). Du Petit-Thouars (1822) used the alternative spelling ‘Leptorchis’ (t.25) and also described the first Liparis from Madagascar as Liparis flavileptis and L. purpuroleptis Thouars, named using Du Petit-Thouars’ peculiar method of forming plant names (see Friis & Rasmussen 1975; Rasmussen 1979; Stafleu & Cowan 1976). The traditional names Malaxis flavescens and M. purpurascens were presented as alternatives, and later authors have invariably chosen the traditional epithets.
In tropical and subtropical regions worldwide.
The plants are easily maintained in cultivation, either in shallow pots or pans of well-drained epiphyte compost or when well established on pieces of tree fern fibre. They grow best in cool conditions where the temperature drops to 10°C at night or even less. They need to be kept moist in the period of active growth. After flowering the plants should be allowed to dry off while the leaves become thin, turn brown and eventually shrivel or fall. After a further rest a new shoot appears at the base of the old pseudobulb, and watering and feeding should begin again.
World Checklist of Monocotyledons. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.kew.org/wcsp/monocots/ accessed 01/07/2020
Bibliography and References:
Cootes J. 2000 Liparis latifolia (Bl.) Lindl. Austral. Orchid Rev. 65. (6): 41 (2000)
Cribb P, Whistler A. 2004 A new Liparis species (Orchidaceae) from Samoa. Kew Bull. 59. (2): 321-323 (2004)
Hermans Johan Malaxideae (Orchidaceae) in Madagascar, the Mascarenes, Seychelles and Comoro Islands Kew Bulletin volume 75, Article number: 27 (2020)
Kowalkowska A, Margonska HB. 2009 Diversity of labellar micromorphological structures in selected species of Malaxidinae (Orchidales). Acta Soc. Bot. Pol. 78. 141-150.
Margonska HB, Szlachetko DL. 2004 Disticholiparis Marg. & Szlach. - a new genus of the subtribe Malaxidinae. Orchidee 55. (2): 175-179 (2004)
McCartney C. 2000 African affinities: part 1. The surprising relationships of some of Florida's wild orchids. Orchids 69. (2): 130-139 (2000)
Ormerod P. 2005 Notes on Papuasian orchids. Orchadian 14. 563-565
Rice R. 2004 Liparis L.C.Rich. Orchid Rev. 112. (1260): 344-346, 369 (2004)
Szlachetko D. L. 1993. A new Liparis (Orchidaceae, Malaxidinae) from Tropical West Africa. - Fragm. Flor. Geobot. , Suppl. 2(1): 211-212.
Wood J, Bell S. 2002 Plant portraits: 440. Liparis latifolia. Orchidaceae. Curtis's Bot. Mag. 19. (2): 88-91 (2002)