AFRICAN

ORCHIDS

Bulbophyllum Thouars, Hist. Orchid.: t. 3 (1822), nom. cons.
Synonyms:
Phyllorkis Thouars, Hist. Orchid.: t. 4, f. 2 (1822).
Tribrachia Lindl., Bot. Reg. 10: t. 832 (1824).
Anisopetalum Hook., Exot. Fl. 2: t. 149 (1825).
Cochlea Blume, Bijdr.: 320 (1825).
Cochlia Blume, Bijdr.: 320 (1825).
Diphyes Blume, Bijdr.: 310 (1825).
Ephippium Blume, Bijdr.: 308 (1825).
Epicranthes Blume, Bijdr.: 306 (1825).
Osyricera Blume, Bijdr.: 307 (1825).
Zygoglossum Reinw., Syll. Pl. Nov. 2: 5 (1825).
Bolbophyllum Spreng., Syst. Veg. 3: 681 (1826), orth. var.
Gersinia Néraud in C.Gaudichaud-Beaupré, Voy. Uranie: 27 (1826).
Megaclinium Lindl., Bot. Reg. 12: t. 989 (1826).
Hippoglossum Breda, Gen. Sp. Orchid. Asclep.: t. 14 (1827).
Odontostylis Breda, Gen. Sp. Orchid. Asclep.: t. 4 (1827), nom. illeg.
Sestochilos Breda, Gen. Sp. Orchid. Asclep.: t. 3 (1827).
Epicrianthus Blume, Fl. Javae: vii (1828).
Odontostylis Blume, Fl. Javae, Praef.: vii (1828), nom. superfl.
Cirrhopetalum Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 45 (1830), nom. cons.
Lyraea Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 46 (1830).
Macrolepis A.Rich. in J.S.C.Domont d'Urville, Voy. Astrolabe 2: 25 (1833).
Malachadenia Lindl., Edwards's Bot. Reg. 25(Misc.): 67 (1839).
Pachyrhachis A.Rich., Herb. Gén. Amateur, II, 3: 23 (1843).
Oxysepalum Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 5: 17 (1851).
Bolbophyllaria Rchb.f., Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 10: 934 (1852).
Bolbophyllopsis Rchb.f., Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 10: 933 (1852).
Didactyle Lindl., Fol. Orchid. 1: 1 (1852).
Xiphizusa Rchb.f., Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 10: 919 (1852).
Sarcobodium Beer, Prakt. Stud. Orchid.: 306 (1854).
Bulbophyllaria S.Moore in J.G.Baker, Fl. Mauritius: 844 (1877), orth. var.
Henosis Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 771 (1890).
Adelopetalum Fitzg., J. Bot. 29: 152 (1891).
Pelma Finet, Notul. Syst. (Paris) 1: 112 (1909).
Codonosiphon Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 1: 893 (1913).
Dactylorhynchus Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 1: 890 (1913).
Monosepalum Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 1: 682 (1913).
Tapeinoglossum Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 1: 892 (1913).
Hyalosema Rolfe, Orchid Rev. 27: 130 (1919).
Canacorchis Guillaumin, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., II, 35: 653 (1964).
× Cirrhophyllum auct., Orchid Rev. 73(859) noh: 1 (1965).
Hapalochilus (Schltr.) Senghas, Orchidee (Hamburg) 29: 248 (1978).
Ferruminaria Garay, Hamer & Siegerist, Nordic J. Bot. 14: 635 (1994).
Mastigion Garay, Hamer & Siegerist, Nordic J. Bot. 14: 635 (1994).
Rhytionanthos Garay, Hamer & Siegerist, Nordic J. Bot. 14: 637 (1994).
Synarmosepalum Garay, Hamer & Siegerist, Nordic J. Bot. 14: 639 (1994).
Vesicisepalum (J.J.Sm.) Garay, Hamer & Siegerist, Nordic J. Bot. 14: 641 (1994).
Oncophyllum D.L.Jones & M.A.Clem., Orchadian 13: 420 (2001).
Peltopus (Schltr.) Szlach. & Marg., Polish Bot. J. 46: 114 (2001).
Blepharochilum M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, Orchadian 13: 499 (2002).
Carparomorchis M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, Orchadian 13: 499 (2002).
Fruticicola (Schltr.) M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, Orchadian 13: 499 (2002).
Karorchis D.L.Jones & M.A.Clem., Orchadian 13: 499 (2002).
Papulipetalum (Schltr.) M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, Orchadian 13: 500 (2002).
Serpenticaulis M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, Orchadian 13: 500 (2002).
Spilorchis D.L.Jones & M.A.Clem., Orchadian 15: 37 (2005).
Hamularia Aver. & Averyanova, Komarovia 4: 18 (2006).
Hordeanthos Szlach., Richardiana 7: 88 (2007).
Lepanthanthe (Schltr.) Szlach., Richardiana 7: 82 (2007).
Trachyrhachis (Schltr.) Szlach., Richardiana 7: 85 (2007).
Tripudianthes (Seidenf.) Szlach. & Kras, Richardiana 7(2): 94 (2007).
Description:
Herbs sympodial, heteranthous. Roots glabrous to villous, usually sprouting from below the pseudobulb. Rhizome creeping, consisting of the entire stem of each shoot except for the last internode, with few too many nodes, with a scale arising from each node. Young shoots lateral, usually sprouting from an internode close to the base of the pseudobulb. Rhizome scales distichous, inarticulate, usually tubular, with a triangular top part, usually more or less glabrous.
Pseudobulbs 1-2 (- 3)-leafed (6-12-leafed in Chaseella), consisting of the last internode of each shoot, ovoid, ellipsoid or cylindrical, often with distinct edges, often partly or entirely covered by the rhizome scales when young.
Leaves duplicate, inarticulate, often with a petiole, orbicular to linear, tip acuminate to emarginate, in the latter case often with an extended mid-nerve, often oblique; thickly herbaceous to coriaceous, usually glabrous .
Inflorescence usually sprouting from the node below the pseudobulb, a raceme. Peduncle usually terete, with few to several nodes bearing scales. Peduncle scales almost similar to the rhizome scales. Rhachis terete, swollen into a spindle-shaped body, or widened and bilaterally flattened; glabrous, papillose or pubescent. Floral bracts appressed to reflexed.
Flowers either distichous (when the rhachis is flattened the flowers are either situated along the midnerve of the flattened side of the rhachis or along the margins) or scattered (spirally arranged in the young inflorescence), either (partly) resupinate or not, appressed against the rhachis to reflexed, either flowering simultaneously or in succession, almost closed to wide open. Pedicel and ovary inarticulate; the jugae of the ovary may end distally in a tooth extending over the base of the petals and the lip.

Sepals, the median and the lateral ones more or less equal except for the shape, usually free; the lateral ones often distinctly oblique, joined with the column foot along the basal part of their lower margin but hardly forming a distinct.
Petals (lateral petals) either as the sepals (except for the shape) or not. Lip (median petal) differentiated from the other parts of the perianth, hinged to the column foot by a very thin, flat strip of tissue allowing the lip to move freely parallel to the bilateral plane of symmetry of the flower; usually entire or inconspicuously three-Iobed, margins either entire and/or glabrous or not, adaxially either with ridges or not, abaxially usually with a median ridge.
Column ending in two more or less s developed stelidia; two additional wings of various shape may be present along the adaxial margins of the column; clinandrium (that part of the column in which the anther is concealed) terminal, separated from the stigma by a seam like, thin or fleshy rostellum; stigma concave, orbicular to longitudinally slitlike, either with a basal tooth or not. Anther connected to the top of the column by a very thin strip of tissue, usually easily to be detached, more or less cordate, flattened to distinctly concave, with two thecae which each may partly be split in two; abaxially often with a distinct ridge of various shape.
Pollinia 2 or 4, when 4 either of about equal shape and size or with a much smaller and/ or differently shaped inner pair; a stipes may be present, which is either firmly attached to the pollinia or easily falling off. Fruit either stalked or not, opening with 3 valves.
Habitat:
Mainly low and high altitude primary forest, either wet (rain forest and montane forest) or with a drier period (savanna woodlands). Less common in low and high altitude shrub vegetations and mangrove forest. Some species may occur in secondary forest and plantations. Epiphytic herbs, les s frequently occurring lithophytic, rarely terrestrial.
Distribution:
Tropical part of Africa
Distribution outside Africa:
Comores, Madagascar, Seychelles, Reunion and Mauritius (ca. 200 species described). Asia: Northwards up to the E. part of India, Nepal, Bhutan, SE China and S. Japan; Southwards to N. Australia; Eastwards to Tahiti (ca.1500 species described). S. America: Northwards up to Mexico and Florida; Southwards to Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia and Peru (ca.100 species described).
Cultivation of Bulbophyllum
Bulbophyllum has been divided into sections for ease of studying the various similar plants. Thes sections are listed and described here and mentioned in the descriptions of the species to facilitate understanding of the gernera. The species upon which the description of the section is based is called the type. In some instances a type is not designated because the original author of the section did not name one.
Artificial key to the continental African sections of Bulbophyllum and Artificial key to to the malagasy sections of Bulbophyllum in prep
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Bibliography and References:
Castro Neto VP, Carr GF. 2007 A new species of Bulbophyllum. Orchid Rev. 115. (1273): 24-27. 1
Cootes J. 2005 Bulbophyllum section Sestochilus. Part 2. Austral. Orchid Rev. 70. 17-21
Cribb P, Pollard BJ. 2004 Bulbophyllum kupense P.J. Cribb & B.J. Pollard, an unusual new orchid from western Cameroon. Kew Bull. 59. (1): 137-139 (2004)
Delepierre G, Lebel JP. 2004 Supplement a l'etude des Orchidaceae du Rwanda (6). (Contributions to the study of the Orchidaceae in Rwanda (6).) Taxonomania no.13. 16-18 (2004)
Droissart V, Stevart T. 2004 Note ecologique sur Bulbophyllum teretifolium Schltr., une Orchidaceae endemique du Cameroun. Taxonomania no.13. 1-4 (2004)
Droissart, V. & Stévart, T. (2004) Note écologique sur le Bulbophyllum teretifolium Schltr. Taxonomania, 13, 2-4.
Fischer GA, Sieder A, Cribb PJ, Kiehn M. 2007 Description of two new species and one new section of Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae) from Madagascar. Adansonia 29. (1): 19-25. 2
La Croix I. 1996 Bulbophyllum in Africa. Orchid Rev. 104. (1207): 39-43 (1996)
Rysy W. 2004 Cirrhopetalum - historical overview, critical remarks and new suggestions regarding the genus. Orchid Rev. 112. (1256): 77-81 (2004)
Rysy W. 2006 Bulbophyllum Section Lepidorhiza Part 1. Orchid Rev. 114. (1267): 18-24.
Rysy W. 2007 Bulbophyllum Sektion Elassoglossum Rysy - eine neue Sektion. Orchidee 58. (3): 268-277.
Sanford W.W., 1974b. An ecological analysis of the genus Bulbophyllum in West Africa. Am. Orchid Soc. Bull. 1974 (1): 115-120.
Szlachetko DL, Kras M. 2007 Contribution a la revision generique de Bulbophyllinae (Epidendroideae). 5. Tripudianthes (Seidenfaden) Szlachetko & Kras. Richardiana 7. (2): 94-96.
Szlachetko DL, Kulak M. 2007 Contribution a la revision generique de Bulbophyllinae (Epidendroideae). 4. Pelma Finet. Richardiana 7. (2): 90-93.
Szlachetko DL. 2007 Contribution a la revision generique de Bulbophyllinae (Epidendroideae). 3. Hordeanthos Szlachetko. Richardiana 7. (2): 88-89. 1 gen. nov.; 3
Szlachetko DL. 2007 Contribution a la revision generique de Bulbophyllinae (Epindendroideae). 2. Trachyrhachis (Schlechter) Szlachetko. Richardiana 7. (2): 85-87.
Szlachetko DL. 2007 Contribution a la revision generique de Bulbophyllinae (Epidendroideae). 1. Lepanthanthe (Schlechter) Szlachetko. Richardiana 7. (2): 79-84.
Vermeulen, J.J. (1984) Five new species and one new variety of continental African Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae). Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, 54, 141 - 144.
Vermeulen, J.J. (1987) Two new species of Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae) in Africa. Kew Bulletin, 42(1), 263-266.
Zapfack L, Simo P. 2006 A new record of Bulbophyllum comatum. Orchid Rev. 114. (1272): 350-351.