AFRICAN

ORCHIDS

Orchis Tourn. ex L., Sp. Pl.: 943: (1753).
Synonyms:
Abrochis Neck., Elem. Bot. 3: 130 (1790), opus utique oppr.
Zoophora Bernh., Syst. Verz.: 308 (1800).
Strateuma Salisb., Trans. Hort. Soc. London 1: 290 (1812).
Aceras R.Br. in W.T.Aiton, Hortus Kew. 5: 191 (1813).
× Orchiaceras E.G.Camus, J. Bot. (Morot) 6: 107 (1892).
Chondradenia Maxim. ex Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 16: 89 (1902).
Description:
Herbs terrestrial, with rhizomes or underground tubers. Stem usually erect, terete, with tubular sheaths near base. Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, rarely subopposite, 1--5, base contracted into clasping sheaths. Raceme terminal, 1- to many flowered; flowers secund or not; floral bracts lanceolate to ovate; ovary resupinate, pedicellate. Flowers resupinate, small or medium-sized. Sepals free; abaxial sepal erect, often concave; lateral sepals often connivent with abaxial sepal forming a hood; labellum not lobed or 3- or 4-lobed, spurred at base or rarely spurless; column stout; anther erect, base firmly adnate to apex of column, with 2 parallel or divergent locules; pollinia 2, granular-farinaceous, sectile, each attached to a viscidium by a slender caudicle; each viscidium enclosed in a sticky globe, both globes enclosed in a common bursicle formed by folding of rostellar arms; stigma 1, concave, beneath rostellum; rostellum slightly protruding, with 2 arms; staminodes 2, on both sides of column. Capsule erect.
Distribution:
Macaronesia, Medit., Europe to Mongolia
Species:

Orchis × algeriensis B.Baumann & H.Baumann Algeria.
Orchis anthropophora (L.) All. W. Europe to Medit.
Orchis × bergonii Nanteuil Medit.
Orchis italica Poir. Medit.
Orchis laeta Steinh. N. Algeria to NW. Tunisia.
Orchis mascula (L.) L. Canary Is., N. & C. Europe to Iran.
Orchis mascula subsp. laxifloriformis Rivas Goday & B.Rodr. C. Pyrenees to Morocco.
Orchis mascula subsp. mascula. Canary Is., Europe, Medit. to Iran.
Orchis mascula subsp. scopulorum (Summerh.) H.Sund. ex H.Kretzschmar E. Madeira.
Orchis olbiensis Reut. ex Gren. S. France to NW. Africa.
Orchis patens Desf. NW. Italy, N. Algeria to N. Tunisia.
Orchis patens subsp. canariensis (Lindl.) Asch. & Graebn. Canary Is.
Orchis patens subsp. patens NW. Italy, N. Algeria to N. Tunisia.
Orchis × petterssonii G.Keller ex Pett. Europe, NW. Africa.
Orchis × petterssonii nothosubsp. Petterssonii Europe, NW. Africa.
Orchis purpurea Huds. Europe to C. Turkey, NE. Algeria.
Orchis purpurea subsp. purpurea Europe to C. Turkey, NE. Algeria.
Orchis simia Lam. Europe to Iran, N. Africa.
Orchis simia subsp. simian Europe to Iran, N. Algeria to NW. Tunisia.
Orchis simia subsp. taubertiana (B.Baumann & H.Baumann) Kreutz NE. Libya.
Orchis spitzelii Saut. ex W.D.J.Koch Sweden (Gotland), E. Spain to Caucasus, NW. Africa
Orchis spitzelii subsp. cazorlensis (Lacaita) D.Rivera & Lopez Velez C. & E. Spain, Baleares, Morocco.
Orchis spitzelii subsp. spitzelii Sweden. (Gotland), NE. Spain to Iran, N. Algeria

World Checklist of Monocotyledons. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.kew.org/wcsp/monocots/ accessed1/20/2010
Bibliography and References:
Delforge P. 2000 Contribution taxonomique et nomenclaturale au genre Orchis L. 1753: remarques sur la validite du genre Steveniella Schlechter 1918. (Nomenclatural and taxonomical contribution to the genus Orchis L. 1753: remarks on the validity of the genus Steveniella Schlechter 1918.) Nat. Belg. 81(Orchid. 13). (3): 176-190 (2000)
Delforge P. 2002 Presence d' Orchis brancifortii en Calabre. (Presence of Orchis brancifortii in Calabria.) Nat. Belg. 83. (orchid.15): 59-66 (2002)
Delforge P. 2005 Note sur Orchis papilionacea var. alibertis. (Note on Orchis papilionacea var. alibertis.) Nat. Belg. 86. 81-90 Fr (En)
Motterle R. 2002 Orchis x angusticruris Franch. (1855). Orchid Dig. 66. (2): 73-74 (2002)
Wrobel D. 2003 Nowe stanowisko Orchis mascula (Orchidaceae). (A new locality for Orchis mascula (Orchidaceae).) Fragm. Flor. Geobot. Polon. 10. 280-281 (2003)