Epipactis tremolsii Pau, Bol. Soc. Aragonesa Ci. Nat. 13: 43 (1914).
Helleborine atropurpurea var. tremolsii (Pau) Soó, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 24: 34 (1927).
Epipactis atropurpurea var. tremolsii (Pau) Schltr. in G.Keller & al., Monogr. Iconogr. Orchid. Eur. 1: 274 (1928).
Epipactis helleborine subsp. tremolsii (Pau) E.Klein, Orchidee (Hamburg) 30: 49 (1979).
Epipactis cardina Benito & C.E.Hermos., Estud. Mus. Cienc. Nat. Álava 13: 109 (1998).
Epipactis tremolsii var. viridiflora J.Benito, Estud. Mus. Cienc. Nat. Álava 14: 30 (1999).
Epipactis duriensis Bernardos, D.Tyteca, Revuelta & Amich, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 145: 241 (2004).
Epipactis tremolsii var. duriensis (Bernardos, D.Tyteca, Revuelta & Amich) P.Delforge, Naturalistes Belges 85: 251 (2004).
Epipactis tremolsii subsp. duriensis (Bernardos, D.Tyteca, Revuelta & Amich) Kreutz, Kompend. Eur. Orchid.: 67 (2004).
Epipactis tremolsii subsp. cardina (Benito & C.E.Hermos.) Kreutz, Eurorchis 17: 106 (2005).
Epipactis tremolsii is a robust looking plant with downy stems which grow to around 60cm in height. The oval and quite broad lower leaves have wavy margins which are mainly green but sometimes flushed red. They form closely overlapping clusters at the base of the stem. The upper leaves are much narrower and pointed and occur throughout the extended flower spike which covers most of the stem. The flowers only open partially and the petals and sepals remain incurved. They are often quite dark red with a glossy brown-to-crimson hypochile in the centre of the lip. The epichile (base of the flower lip) is heart-shaped with pronounced wrinkled bosses.
Found in woods and hedge-banks.
This orchid flowers from the beginning of April to the end of May.
Epipactis tremolsii was first described by C. Pau from Barcelona, Spain in 1914 and was named in honour of the eminent 19th century Spanish botanist, F. Tremols y Borrell. It is a member of the Epipactis tremolsii group which are all characterised by strongly hairy stems and short, broad leaves which tend to be densest towards bottom third of the flowering stem .
W. & C. Medit.
Pierre Delforge (2005) Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East; A&C Black
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