AFRICAN

ORCHIDS

Cephalanthera rubra (L.) Rich., De Orchid. Eur.: 38 (1817).
Homotypic Synonyms:
Serapias rubra L., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, 2: 594 (1767).
Epipactis rubra (L.) F.W.Schmidt, Samml. Phys.-Oekon. Aufsätze 1: 253 (1795).
Cymbidium rubrum (L.) Sw., J. Bot. (Schrader) 1799(2): 226 (1800).
Helleborine rubra (L.) Schrank, Fl. Monac. 2: 119 (1814).
Dorycheile rubra (L.) Fuss, Fl. Transsilv.: 628 (1866).
Limodorum rubrum (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 671 (1891).
Heterotypic Synonyms:
Epipactis purpurea Crantz, Stirp. Austr. Fasc., ed. 2, 2: 457 (1769).
Cephalanthera comosa Tineo in G.Gussone, Fl. Sicul. Syn. 2: 877 (1844).
Cephalanthera rubra var. comosa (Tineo) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 687 (1882).
Epipactis rubra lusus albiflora Harz in D.F.L.von Schlechtendal, Fl. Deutschl. ed. 5, Neuer Abdruck, 4: 330 (1895 publ. 1896).
Epipactis rubra lusus parviflora Harz in D.F.L.von Schlechtendal, Fl. Deutschl. ed. 5, Neuer Abdruck, 4: 327 (1895 publ. 1896).
Cephalanthera rubra lusus albiflora (Harz) Touss. & Hoschedé, Fl. Vernon: 254 (1898).
Cephalanthera rubra f. latior Zapal., Consp. Fl. Gallic. Crit. 1: 222 (1906).
Cephalanthera rubra var. tenczyniensis Zapal., Consp. Fl. Gallic. Crit. 1: 222 (1906).
Epipactis rubra var. parviflora (Harz) W.Zimm., Form. Orch. Deut.: 82 (1912).
Cephalanthera rubra f. parviflora (Harz) Soó, Arch. Bot. (Leipzig) 23: 115 (1928).
Cephalanthera rubra f. tenczyniensis (Zapal.) Soó, Arch. Bot. (Leipzig) 23: 115 (1928).
Cephalanthera rubra var. leucantha Bordz., Fl. RSS Ucr. 3: 349 (1950).
Cephalanthera rubra f. alba Raynaud, Orchid. Maroc: 93 (1985), no type indicated.
Cephalanthera rubra f. comosa (Tineo) Robatsch, Wulfenia 7: 104 (2000).
Description:
Rhizomatous perennial, 15-65 cm tall. Stem spindly and flexuous. Leaves 2-8, 5-14x 1-3cm, narrowly oval to lanceolate, longer than internodes, dark green with prominent veins. Inflorescence Lax, bracts leafy, upper bracts shorter than flowers. Flowers (3-)5-9(-15), slightly open (cf. C. damasonium), bright pink to deep purplish pink, perianth lobes acuminate; sepals ovate-lanceolate, 17-25 x 6-8 mm, pubescent on the outer surface, lateral sepals spread-ing, dorsal sepal curving over the petals. Petals subequal. Labellum 17-23 mm long, hypochile white with faint yellow veins, concave, lateral lobes often pink, erect, encircling column; epichile elongate, cordate, concave, white, with pink margins, with 7-15 yellow/ochre ridges; column purple. Ovary subsessile, linear, pubescent (details from Delforge, 1995).
Habitat:
In general, Cephalanthera rubra grows in shady places on crumbly humus-rich clay, loess or chalk soils, but it can sometimes be found in stony places in the sun (in which case the plants are small, 10-15 cm, and few-flowered). Habitats in which it can be found are drier deciduous and coniferous forests, among shrubs, on roadsides and embankments of roads, grassy slopes (there usually on the leeward side) or in partial shade at the edge of forests (e.g. Landwehr, 1977). Large colonies (presumably, at least in part, clonal) can form on alkaline sands under conifers on Gotland (Sweden) (Michael F. Fay, pers. obs.). In England, it has only been recorded from beechwoods on calcareous soils (Perring & Farrell, 1977).
Flowering Time:
June to July in England, depending on the site. Individual plants do not flower every season.
Distribution:
Europe to C. Asia
References:
The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2015.
Images:
Click on each image to see a larger version.

Habitat/In situ  Habitat/In situ  Habitat/In situ 
cephalanthera rubra  cephalanthera rubra. closer  cephalanthera rubra. close up
 
Photograph© Rogier
van Vugt. Image used
with kind permission. 
Photograph© Rogier
van Vugt. Image used
with kind permission. 
Photograph© Rogier
van Vugt. Image used
with kind permission. 






































Cephalanthera damasonium (Mill.) Druce, Ann. Scott. Nat. Hist. 1906: 225 (1906).
Homotypic Synonyms:
Serapias damasonium Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8: n.º 2 (1768).
Heterotypic Synonyms:
Serapias latifolia Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8: n.º 4 (1768), nom. illeg.
Epipactis alba Crantz, Stirp. Austr. Fasc., ed. 2, 2: 460 (1769).
Serapias grandiflora Oeder in G.C.Oeder & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Dan.: t. 506 (1770), sensu auct.
Serapias lancifolia Murray, Syst. Veg. ed. 14: 815 (1784).
Serapias grandiflora subsp. lancifolia (Murray) Ehrh., Beitr. Naturk. 1: 109 (1787).
Serapias tota-alba Gilib., Exerc. Phyt. 2: 493 (1792), opus utique oppr.
Epipactis lancifolia (Murray) F.W.Schmidt, Samml. Phys.-Ökon. Aufs. 1: 252 (1795).
Cymbidium pallens Sw., J. Bot. (Schrader) 1799(2): 225 (1800).
Epipactis ochroleuca Baumg., Enum. Stirp. Transsilv. 3: 174 (1817).
Serapias ochroleuca (Baumg.) Steud., Nomencl. Bot.: 766 (1821).
Cephalanthera lancifolia (Murray) Dumort., Fl. Belg.: 134 (1827).
Serapias pallens (Sw.) S.B.Jundz., Opisan. Rósl.: 268 (1830).
Cephalanthera ochroleuca (Baumg.) Rchb., Fl. Germ. Excurs.: 140(20) (1831).
Cephalanthera pallens subsp. ochroleuca (Baumg.) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 687 (1882).
Cephalanthera alba (Crantz) Simonk., Enum. Fl. Transsilv.: 504 (1887).
Cephalanthera pallens var. collina Zapal., Consp. Fl. Gallic. Crit. 1: 223 (1906).
Cephalanthera pallens var. gracilis Zapal., Consp. Fl. Gallic. Crit. 1: 223 (1906).
Cephalanthera pallens var. pienena Zapal., Consp. Fl. Gallic. Crit. 1: 223 (1906).
Cephalanthera latifolia Janch., Mitt. Naturwiss. Vereins Univ. Wien 5: 111 (1907).
Cephalanthera alba var. adenophora R.Keller in H.Schinz & R.Keller, Fl. Schweiz, ed. 3: 75 (1914).
Epipactis alba f. spicata W.Zimm., Allg. Bot. Z. Syst. 23: 11 (1917).
Cephalanthera latifolia f. adenophora (R.Keller) Soó, Arch. Bot. (Leipzig) 23: 113 (1928).
Cephalanthera latifolia f. collina (Zapal.) Soó, Arch. Bot. (Leipzig) 23: 112 (1928).
Cephalanthera latifolia f. gracilis (Zapal.) Soó, Arch. Bot. (Leipzig) 23: 113 (1928).
Cephalanthera latifolia f. pienena (Zapal.) Soó, Arch. Bot. (Leipzig) 23: 113 (1928).
Cephalanthera latifolia f. spicata (W.Zimm.) Soó, Arch. Bot. (Leipzig) 23: 112 (1928).
Cephalanthera yunnanensis Hand.-Mazz., Symb. Sin. 7: 1339 (1936).
Cephalanthera damasonium f. collina (Zapal.) Soó, Ann. Univ. Sci. Budapest. Rolando Eötvös, Sect. Biol. 11: 54 (1969).
Cephalanthera damasonium f. gracilis (Zapal.) Soó, Ann. Univ. Sci. Budapest. Rolando Eötvös, Sect. Biol. 11: 54 (1969).
Cephalanthera damasonium f. spicata (W.Zimm.) Soó, Ann. Univ. Sci. Budapest. Rolando Eötvös, Sect. Biol. 11: 54 (1969).
Cephalanthera damasonium lusus ochroleuca (Baumg.) Soó, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 16: 367 (1970 publ. 1971).
Description:
Plants leafy, autotrophic, 14–36 cm tall. Stem slender, smooth or sometimes scabrous toward apex, with 2–5 basal sheaths, 4- or 5(–7)-leaved. Leaves elliptic to oblong, becoming smaller and linear-lanceolate above, 3–6 × (0.5–)1.2–2 cm, apex acute to acuminate. Inflorescence laxly (1 or)2- or 3(–5)flowered; rachis 1–2.5 cm; floral bracts foliaceous, lanceolate to elliptic, 30–50 × 5–12 mm, all exceeding ovary. Flowers suberect, rarely opening fully, white, 1.5–2.5 cm; pedicel and ovary 10–12 mm. Sepals narrowly obovate-elliptic, 1.6–1.8 cm × 5.5– 6.5 mm, 7-veined, apex obtuse to acute. Petals subobovate, 13– 14 × ca. 6 mm, apex acute to acuminate; lip 8–9 mm, 2-partite; hypochile gibbous-saccate, enclosed within bases of lateral sepals, with an orange-yellow patch near base of disk; hypochile lobes erect and loosely embracing column, ovate-triangular, 2– 2.5 mm; epichile transversely elliptic, ca. 4 × 8 mm, densely papillose toward apex, with 3 longitudinal, orange lamellae in basal half, obtuse-truncate. Column 9–11 mm, with 2 narrow, oblong wings; anther ovoid, ca. 2.5 mm.
Habitat:
These orchids occur in woodlands (they are more common in Beech woods) where the underlying ground is chalk or limestone, although they are also found in more open positions from time to time.

Flower time:
Cephalanthera damasonium blooms from early May until the end of June.
Distribution:
Europe to N. Iran, Bhutan to China (Yunnan)
Reference:
Anne and Simon Harrap (2005) Orchids of Britain and Ireland; A&C Black Pierre Delforge (2005) Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East; A&C Black
Images:
Click on each image to see a larger version.

Habitat/In situ  Habitat/In situ  Habitat/In situ  Habitat/In situ 
cephalanthera damasonium  cephalanthera damasonium. closer  cephalanthera damasonium. close up
 
cephalanthera damasonium. close up 01 
Photograph© Rogier
van Vugt. Image used
with kind permission. 
Photograph© Rogier
van Vugt. Image used
with kind permission. 
Photograph© Rogier
van Vugt. Image used
with kind permission. 
Photograph© Rogier
van Vugt. Image used
with kind permission. 




















Cephalanthera longifolia (L.) Fritsch, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 38: 81 (1888).
Homotypic Synonyms:
Serapias helleborine var. longifolia L., Sp. Pl.: 950 (1753).
Serapias grandiflora L., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, 2: 594 (1767), nom. illeg.
Serapias longifolia (L.) Scop., Fl. Carniol., ed. 2, 2: 202 (1772), nom. illeg.
Serapias lonchophyllum L.f., Suppl. Pl.: 405 (1782), nom. illeg.
Serapias xiphophyllum Ehrh. ex L.f., Suppl. Pl.: 404 (1782).
Serapias ensifolia Murray, Syst. Veg. ed. 14: 815 (1784), nom. illeg.
Serapias nivea Vill., Hist. Pl. Dauphiné 2: 52 (1787), nom. illeg.
Epipactis ensifolia F.W.Schmidt, Samml. Phys.-Ökon. Aufs. 1: 251 (1795).
Epipactis grandiflora (L.) Sm., Engl. Bot.: 271 (1795).
Cymbidium xiphophyllum (Ehrh. ex L.f.) Sw., J. Bot. (Schrader) 2: 226 (1799).
Epipactis pallens Sw., Neues J. Bot. 1: 65 (1805), nom. illeg.
Epipactis xiphophylla (Ehrh. ex L.f.) Sw., Neues J. Bot. 1: 65 (1805).
Serapias pallida Wahlenb., Fl. Carpat. Princ.: 291 (1814).
Cephalanthera ensifolia Rich., De Orchid. Eur.: 38 (1817), nom. illeg.
Cephalanthera pallens Rich., De Orchid. Eur.: 38 (1817).
Cephalanthera grandiflora Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 210 (1821), nom. illeg.
Cephalanthera lonchophylla Rchb.f. in H.G.L.Reichenbach, Icon. Fl. Germ. Helv. 13-14: t. 119 (1851), nom. illeg.
Cephalanthera xiphophyllum Rchb.f. in H.G.L.Reichenbach, Icon. Fl. Germ. Helv. 13-14: 135 (1851), nom. illeg.
Limodorum grandiflorum (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 671 (1891), nom. illeg.
Limodorum longifolium (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 671 (1891), nom. illeg.
Cephalanthera longifolia f. angustifolia Maire & Weiller in R.C.J.Maire, Fl. Afr. Nord 6: 359 (1959), nom. illeg.
Heterotypic Synonyms:
Epipactis grandifolia All., Fl. Pedem. 2: 152 (1785).
Epipactis pallida Sw., Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Nya Handl. 21: 232 (1800).
Cephalanthera acuminata Wall. ex Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 412 (1840).
Cephalanthera maravignae Tineo in G.Gussone, Fl. Sicul. Syn. 2: 877 (1844).
Cephalanthera thomsonii Rchb.f., Linnaea 41: 54 (1876).
Cephalanthera ensifolia var. maravignae (Tineo) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 687 (1882).
Cephalanthera angustifolia Simonk., Enum. Fl. Transsilv.: 505 (1887).
Limodorum acuminatum (Wall. ex Lindl.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 671 (1891).
Cephalanthera longifolia var. pilosa Harz in D.F.L.von Schlechtendal, Fl. Deutschl. ed. 5 4: 30 (1896).
Cephalanthera xiphophyllum var. latifolia Maire, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 5: 239 (1914).
Cephalanthera ensifolia var. cesari-gonzalezii Rivas Goday & Bellot, Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 6: 191 (1948).
Cephalanthera longifolia f. latifolia (Maire) Maire & Weiller in R.C.J.Maire, Fl. Afr. Nord 6: 359 (1959).
Cephalanthera longifolia var. latifolia (Maire) D.Rivera & Lopez Velez, Orquíd. Prov. Albacete: 55 (1987).
Cephalanthera longifolia var. rosea Perko, Ber. Arbeitskreis. Heimische Orchid. 19: 9 (2002).
Cephalanthera conferta (B.Baumann & H.Baumann) Kreutz, Eurorchis 17: 104 (2005).
Cephalanthera longifolia subsp. conferta B.Baumann & H.Baumann, J. Eur. Orch. 37: 249 (2005).
Description:
Herbs terrestrial, autotrophic, 20--47 cm tall. Stem erect, below middle with 3--5 loosely arranged sheaths. Leaves 4--7; leaf blade lanceolate, broadly lanceolate, or oblong-lanceolate, (2.5--)4--13 X 0.5--2.5 cm, base clasping, apex long acuminate or acuminate. Raceme 1.5--6 cm, 2--13-flowered; floral bracts linear-lanceolate to narrowly triangular, 2--6 mm, but lowest 1 or 2 leaflike, to 5--13 cm. Flowers slightly or not opening. Sepals narrowly rhombic-elliptic or narrowly elliptic-lanceolate, 1.1--1.6 cm X 3.5--4.5 mm, 5-veined, apex acuminate or subacute. Petals white, subobovate, 7--8 X ca. 4 mm, apex acute or mucronate; labellum 5--6 mm, base saccate, 3-lobed; lateral lobes subovate-triangular, +/- embracing column; midlobe triangular-cordate, 3--3.5 X 5--6 mm, with 3 or 4 lamellae densely papillose towards tip; saccate base short and obtuse, enclosed in bases of lateral sepals. Column 4--5 mm. Capsule elliptic, 1.7--2 cm, 6--8 mm in diam. 2n = 32, 34.
Habitat:
Mediterranean forest communities, especially of pine or oak.
Flowering:
April-May.
Distribution:
Europe, Medit. to C. China
References:
Sue Parker (2016) Wild Orchids of Wales - how, when and where to find them; First Nature; Chris Thorogood and Simon Hiscock (2014) Field Guide to the Wildflowers of the Algarve; Kew Publishing; Anne and Simon Harrap (2005) Orchids of Britain and Ireland; A&C Black; Pierre Delforge (2005) Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East; A&C Black
Images:
Click on each image to see a larger version.

Habitat/In situ  Habitat/In situ  Habitat/In situ 
cephalanthera longifolia  cephalanthera longifolia 02  cephalanthera longifolia. close up 
Photograph© Rogier
van Vugt. Image used
with kind permission. 
Photograph© Rogier
van Vugt. Image used
with kind permission. 
Photograph© Rogier
van Vugt. Image used
with kind permission.