AFRICAN

ORCHIDS

Phaius Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. 2: 517, 529. 1790.
Synonyms:
Cyanorchis Thouars, Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 19: 317 (1809).
Gastorkis Thouars, Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1: 317 (1809).
Pachyne Salisb., Trans. Hort. Soc. London 1: 299 (1812).
Limatodis Blume, Bijdr.: 375 (1825).
Tankervillia Link, Handbuch 1: 251 (1829).
Hecabe Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4: 44 (1838).
Pesomeria Lindl., Edwards's Bot. Reg. 24(Misc.): 5 (1838).
Phajus Hassk., Cat. Hort. Bot. Bogor.: 42 (1844), orth. var.
Description:
Herbs terrestrial. Root curved, terete, long, stout, densely pale gray pilose. Pseudobulbs tufted, long or short, with few to many nodes, often sheathed. Leaves large, several, alternate on upper part of pseudobulb, turning indigo blue when dried, base contracted into stalk and decurrent into long sheaths, with plicate veins; leaf sheath tightly embracing stem or clasping into a pseudostem. Flower scapes 1 or 2, arising laterally on nodes of pseudobulb or axillary, higher or lower than leaves; peduncle with a few sparse sheaths; raceme sparsely few or densely many flowered; floral bracts fugacious or persistent, large. Flowers beautiful, often large. Sepals and petals subequal in size; labellum adnate to column at base, separate from column or adnate to column wing above column base, with short spur or spurless, nearly 3-lobed or unlobed, both sides embracing column; column long, stout, upper part enlarged, both sides with wings; rostellum large or inconspicuous, unlobed; stigma lateral; anthers 2-loculed; pollinia 8, with 4 per group, waxy, attached to 1 sticky structure.
Distribution:
Trop. Africa to Pacific
Cultivation:
Not in cultivation
Species:

Phaius mannii Rchb.f. WC. Trop. Africa.
Phaius occidentalis Schltr. Uganda to WC. & S. Trop. Africa.
Phaius pulchellus Kraenzl. Mascarenes, Madagascar.
Phaius pulchellus var. ambrensis N. Madagascar
Phaius pulchellus var. andrambovatensis SE. Madagascar.
Phaius pulchellus var. pulchellus Mascarenes, Madagascar.
Phaius pulchellus var. sandrangatensis Bosser NE. Madagascar.
Phaius tetragonus (Thouars) Rchb.f. Seychelles to Mascarenes.
Phaius villosus (Thouars) Blume Mauritius.

World Checklist of Monocotyledons. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.kew.org/wcsp/monocots/ accessed1/20/2010
Bibliography and References:
Bosser J. 1992 Phaius humblotii var. ruber; eastern Madagascar; Orchidaceae. Flow. Pl. Afr. 52. (1): pl.2045 (3p.) (1992)
Cribb P, Sun M, Barretto G. 2005 Phaius tankervilleae and P. wallichii (Orchidaceae), a pair of confused species. Kew Bull. 59. (4): 547-554 (2004 publ. 2005)
Dockrill AW. 1995 The genus Phaius in Australia. Austral. Orchid Rev. 60. (5): 4-9 (1995)
Hermans J. 1999 Plant portraits: 375. Phaius pulchellus var. sandrangatensis: Orchidaceae. Curtis's Bot. Mag. 16. (4): 262-266 (1999)
Lewis BA. 1992 Additions to the orchid flora of Vanuatu in the south-west Pacific. Kew Bull. 47. (4): 685-691 (1992)
Ormerod P. 1994 Notes on Phaius Lour. section Pesomeria (Lindl.) Pfitzer in Australasia. Austral. Orchid Rev. 59. (2): 14-15 (1994)
Ormerod P. 1996 Notes on the orchids of New Guinea and the Pacific: part 2. Austral. Orchid Rev. 61. (5): 39, 41-42 (1996)
Ormerod P. 1998 Notes on the orchids of New Guinea and the Pacific: part 5. Austral. Orchid Rev. 63. (1): 12-14 (1998)
Su HJ. 1990 Taxonomical and ecological studies on the native species of Calanthe and Phaius (Orchidaceae) in Taiwan: 2. Calanthe sect. Styloglossum, Phaius and Cephalantheropsis. Quart. J. Exp. Forest. Nation. Taiwan Univ. 4. (3): 81-96 (1990)
Su HJ. 1990 Taxonomical and ecological studies on the native species of Calanthe and Phaius (Orchidaceae) in Taiwan: 1. Calanthe sect. Calothyrsus. Quart. J. Exp. Forest. Nation. Taiwan Univ. 4. (2): 143-160 (1990)