Nervilia bicarinata (Blume) Schltr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45: 405 (1911).
Homotypic Synonyms:
Pogonia bicarinata Blume, Coll. Orchid.: 152 (1859).
Heterotypic Synonyms:
Pogonia commersonii Blume, Coll. Orchid.: 152 (1859).
Pogonia umbrosa Rchb.f., Flora 50: 102 (1867).
Pogonia viridiflava Rchb.f., Flora 65: 532 (1882).
Pogonia barklyana Rchb.f., Flora 68: 378 (1885).
Nervilia barklyana (Rchb.f.) Schltr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45: 404 (1911).
Nervilia commersonii (Blume) Schltr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45: 405 (1911).
Nervilia umbrosa (Rchb.f.) Schltr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45: 404 (1911).
Nervilia viridiflava (Rchb.f.) Schltr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45: 404 (1911).
Pogonia ghindana Fiori, Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., n.s., 19: 430 (1912).
Pogonia chariensis A.Chev., Études Fl. Afr. Centr. Franç. 1: 297 (1913), nom. nud.
Nervilia ghindana (Fiori) Cufod., Bull. Jard. Bot. Natl. Belg. 43(3) Suppl.: 1611 (1972).
Description:
Erect terrestrial herb 17–75 cm tall, glabrous except for lip and subterranean parts. Tuber 1–2 × 1–3 × 1–4.7 cm, subspherical or ovoid, 3–7-noded.Leaf solitary, appearing after flowering, horizontal, held well above ground, very large, up to 22.5 cm long and 26.5 cm wide, orbicular (reniform when flattened), cordate at base, apiculate, glabrous, 10–30-veined, heavily pleated; pleats keeled with keels sometimes white and always somewhat ragged near the margin; petiole (2)5–26 cm long, sulcate with 1–2 sheathing cataphylls when young. Scape erect, terete, laxly (1)4–10(12)-flowered, with 2–5 sheathing cataphylls, the uppermost often bract-like and up to 4 cm long. Flowers evenly spaced along the rhachis, 2–4 cm a part; bracts 10–27 × 0.9–2.5 mm, filiform to lanceolate. Sepals and petals subequal, ligulate-lanceolate, acute, greenish; lateral sepals slightly oblique, 17–31 × 0.9–4 mm; petals slightly shorter than sepals. Lip greenish-white with purple or green venation, 20–31 × 17–25 mm, ovate, obscurely 3-lobed, bearing 2 parallel fleshy pubescent ridges running from base of lip to base of mid-lobe; side lobes short, oblong to shortly triangular, obtuse, erect, enclosing the column; mid-lobe triangular to ovate, acute, recurved. Column curved, 10–15(16) mm long, clavate, glabrous; anther front rim with two protruding teeth; pollina yellow, 2.5–3.2 mm long; stigmatic surface 4–5 mm in diameter. Capsule c. 13 mm long.
Habitat:
Riverine and waterfall-spray forests, xerophilous forests, Syzygium spp. thickets. Usually September-October.
Notes:
The inflorescence of Nervilia bicarinata is 4—12-flowered, basal part of the lip is oblong-elliptic, side lobes auriculated to triangular, small or medium, the middle lobe triangular, canaliculate at the apex, obtuse. All theses features differ this species from its closest relatives, Nervilia kotschyi and Nervilia shirensis (Rolfe) Schltr.. Leaves of Nervilia bicarinata are characterized by very long petiole, more than 10 cm long.
Cultivation:
As given for the genus, warm to cool growing terrestrial.
Distribution:
Senegal, Guinea-Bissau7 Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Chad, Cameroon, Sao Tomé and Principe, Equatorial Guinea (Annobon), the Republic of Congo, Central African Republic, Ethiopia, Uganda, Tanzania, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Republic of South Africa, Yemen, Oman, Madagascar, Comores, Reunion, Maurice. Alt. 70-1100 m.
References:
Orchidaceae of West-central Africa, vol. 1, Gdansk University Press Gdansk 2010; The Orchids of South Central Africa Williamson 1977; Orchids of Madagascar Hermans 2007; Field Guide to the Orchids of Madagascar Cribb & Herman 2009; Orchid Monographs 5 (1991)
Images:
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Habitat/In situ  Habitat/In situ  Habitat/In situ  Habitat/In situ  Habitat/In situ 
nervilia bicarinata 01  nervilia bicarinata 02  nervilia bicarinata 03 nervilia bicarinata 04  nervilia bicarinata 05 
Photograph© Etienne
Vennetier Image used
with kind permission. 
Photograph© Etienne
Vennetier Image used
with kind permission. 
Photograph© Etienne
Vennetier Image used
with kind permission. 
Photograph© Etienne
Vennetier Image used
with kind permission. 
Photograph© Etienne
Vennetier Image used
with kind permission.