Dactylorhiza romana (Sebast.) Soó, Nom. Nov. Gen. Dactylorhiza: 3 (1962).
Homotypic Synonyms:
Orchis romana Sebast., Roman. Pl. Fasc. Prim. 1: 12 (1813).
Dactylorhiza sambucina subsp. romana (Sebast.) Bornm., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 61(140): 126 (1927).
Dactylorchis romana (Sebast.) Verm., Stud. Dactylorch.: 65 (1947).
Heterotypic Synonyms:
Orchis sambucina var. zimmermannii A.Camus in E.G.Camus & A.A.Camus, Iconogr. Orchid. Europe: 212 (1928).
Dactylorhiza cantabrica H.A.Pedersen, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 152: 428 (2006).
Dactylorhiza sambucina subsp. cantabrica (H.A.Pedersen) Kreutz, Ber. Arbeitskreis. Heimische Orchid. 24(1): 155 (2007).
Dactylorhiza sambucina f. zimmermannii (A.Camus) P.Delforge, Naturalistes Belges 88: 246 (2007).
Plant (6.8–)12.6–38.9 (−45.4) cm high with the node of the uppermost sheathing leaf almost always placed below ground level. Stem (2.0–)2.3–5.6(−8.0) mm in diameter immediately below the inflorescence. Sheathing leaves (excluding cataphylls) (1–)2–6(−9); the longest one (4.9–)8.1–13.1(−20.8) × (0.7–)0.9–1.3 (−1.9) cm, (4.2–)6.9–13.2(−17.8) times as long as wide, (0.2–)0.3–0.8(−1.1) times as long as the height of the plant, describing an adaxial angle of (30–)39–83(−90)° to the stem. Non-sheathing leaves below the inflorescence (0–)1–8(−11). Inflorescence (2.3–)3.5–9.8(−14.5) cm long, (0.1–)0.2–0.4(−0.6) times as long as the height of the plant, carrying (3–)6– 23(−37) yellow or purple flowers. Lamina of labellum devoid of markings, (5.2–)6.4–9.3 (−10.8) × (7.3–) 8.1–13.6(−16.5) mm, almost always slightly three-lobed [shape index (0.5–)0.7–0.8(−1.0), almost always widest in its proximal to middle part, with the sidelobes describing an abaxial angle of (10–)32–144(−270)° to each other. Spur almost always upcurved, (7.4–)9.3–19.2(−23.0) mm long, (1.0–)1.3–2.3(−2.7) times as long as the lamina of labellum, (1.5–)1.8–3.3(−3.6) mm in diameter at the entrance, (0.6–)0.8–1.3(−1.8) mm in diameter 1 mm below the apex.
Medit. to C. Asia