AFRICAN

ORCHIDS

Satyrium mechowii Rchb.f., Flora 65: 531 (1882).
Description:
Leaves 4–8, decreasing upwards into the bracts. Raceme cylindrical, dense-flowered. Bracts lanceolate, acuminate, longer than the flowers, reflexed during flowering. Lip calceolate, arched in the middle, without spurs.
Habitat:
No data.
Distribution:
Angola
References:
Flora of Tropical Africa, Vol 7, page 12, (1898) Author: (By R. A. Rolfe.)

Satyrium aethiopicum Summerh., Kew Bull. 13: 257 (1958).
Homotypic Names:
Satyrium bifolium A.Rich., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 2, 14: 273 (1840), nom. illeg.
Description:
Terrestrial with an erect stem enveloped by sheaths and carrying 2, basal, adpressed to the ground, very broadly ovate to orbicular to heart shaped leaves that blooms in the late spring through earlier fall on a terminal, erect, 6 to 13 cm long, broadly cylindrical, rather densely 3 to 15 flowered inflorescence with obovate floral bracts.
Habitat:
Combretum-Terminalia woodand bushland, bushed meadows, and Oxytenanthera abyssinica thickets; Altitude: 1450–1600 m.
Flowering time:
July–August
Distribution:
Ethiopia
References:
Field Guide to Ethiopian Orchids Dimissew, Cribb & Rasmussen 2004; THE ORCHID FLORA OF BENISHANGUL-GUMUZ (WESTERN ETHIOPIA): AN ECOLOGICAL AND PHENOLOGICAL STUDY, Selbyana 28(2): 123–136. 2007.

Satyrium fimbriatum Summerh., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1932: 343 (1932).
Description:
Herba terrestris usque 40 cm. alta; tubera ovoidea, circiter I cm. longa. Folia 2, radicalia, humistrata, ovata vel suborbicularia, subacuta vel obtusa, 3-7 cm. longa, 2-5-6 cm. lata, ut videtur subcarnosa. Scapus erectus, teres, glaber, vaginis 3-5 lanceolatis acuminatis membranaceis subdistantibus instructus. Racemus cylindricus, 6-1o cm. longus, circiter 2-5 cm. diametro, subdense 5-I6-florus; bracteae lanceolatae vel elliptico-lanceolatae, acutae vel acuminatae, ovarium pedicellatum superantes, sub anthesi dimidio superiore recurvatae. Sepalum intermedium ligulatooblanceolatum, obtusum, 8-io mm. longum, 2-2-5 mm. latum; sepala lateralia curvatim oblongo-lanceolata, subacuta, 8-11-5 mm. longa, 2-5-3 mm. lata; omnia sepala cum petalis basi adnata. Petala elliptico-oblanceolata, subacuta, superne marginibus laceratofimbriatis, 8-io-5 mm. longa, 2-5-3-5 mm. lata. Labellum late ellipsoideum, leviter cucullatum, in toto 9.5-I2 mm. longum, inferne 6-7 mm. latum, in apicem suborbicularem ?- reflexum marginibus lacerato-fimbriatis 3-5-4 mm. longum productum; calcaria gracilia, ovario ± adpressa, cylindrica, circiter 3 cm. longa. Columna incurvata, 3-5 mm. longa; labium stigmatiferum transverse oblongo-ellipticum, 1-5-2 mm. altum, 3-4 mm. latum; rostellum basi quadratum, lobis lateralibus brevissimis dentiformibus, lobo intermedio triangulari acuto, totum rostellum 1-5-2 mm. longum, basi 1-25-2 mm. latum.
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Habitat:
In open grassland close to forest edge, 2490 m.,
Note:
Flowers rose coloured or pale pink, scentless.
A remarkable species whose nearest relatives are the two South African species mentioned in the diagnosis. The most striking feature is the lacerate or fimbriate margins of the petals and of the apex of the lip. The occurrence of a new species of this affinity so remote geographically from the two older species is particularly interesting, especially as neither of the southern species occurs in Natal or the Transvaal.
Distribution:
Sudan to E. Trop. Africa

Images:
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Botanical Drawing / Herbarium
satyrium fimbriatum
Photograph copyright Swiss Orchid Foundation at the Herbarium Jany Renz Image used with kind permission.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Satyrium comptum Summerh., Kew Bull. 20: 174 (1966).
Description:
Herba terrestris, 7-20 cm. alta, radicibus exceptis fere omnino glabra; tubera 1-3, ovoidea, ellipsoidea vel ellipsoideo-cylindrica, 1-3 cm. longa, 5-10 mm. diametro, glabrata vel 4- tomentosa; radices graciles, flexuosae, sparse pubescentes. Caulis erectus, gracilis, teres, foliatus, in inflorescentiam terminans. Folia 4-6; infimum interdum ad bracteam redactum; intermedia 1-3 1- patentia, lanceolata, ovata vel fere orbicularia, acuta vel obtusissima, saepius sub-opposita, usque 2-4.5 cm. longa et 1.5-4 cm. lata, carnosula, griseo-viridia, nitentia; 2-3 superiora ± vaginiformia, cauli adpressa, lanceolata, acuta, sursum decrescentia. Inflorescentia usque 5 cm. longa, 2-2-5 cm. diametro, laxiuscule I-8-flora; bracteae primum erectae, deinde valde reflexae, lanceolatae vel late lanceolatae, acutae, 8-15 mm. longae, floribus saepius breviores. Flores suberecti vel erecto-patentes, albi vel roseo-rubri, fragrantes; pedicellus cum ovario arcuatim curvatus, 7-9 mm. longus, sexangulatus. Sepala et petala porrecta, vel -4- decurvata, inter se dimidio inferiore connata, lateralia cum labello triente inferiore connata; sepalum intermedium oblanceolatum, obtusissimum, 7-8 mm. longum, fere 2 mm. latum, sepala lateralia oblique elliptico-oblonga, rotundato-obtusa, 6-5-7.5 mm. longa, 2-2.5 mm. lata. Petala oblanceolata vel oblanceolatooblonga, obtusissima, 6-5-7 mm. longa, i-i-5 mm. lata, marginibus interdum breviter papilloso-ciliolatis; omnia tepala I-2-nervosa. Labellum fere horizontale, valde convexum, cucullatum, apice late et breviter reflexum, circiter 7 mm. longum, ore angusto, basi 2-calcaratum; calcaria recta vel leviter curvata, ab ovario divergentia, sursum sensim angustata, 8-5-Io mm. longa, basi 1-5 mm. diametro. Columna erecta, brevis, 4.'5-5 mm. alta, stipite circiter 2-5 mm. longo arcuato; antherae loculi dependentes, ellipsoidei, 1.5 mm. longi, pollinii stipite gracili, viscidio elliptico vel fere orbiculari; stigma erectum, transverse ellipticum vel oblongum, 2 mm. altum, 3-3.5 mm. latum, rostello porrecto carnoso trilobato lobis lateralibus brevibus acutis lobo intermedio multo majore sub-spathulato obtusissimo.
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Habitat:
In clefts and niches amongst rocks at elevations around 2650 to 2800 meters.
Note:
This species agrees with Satyrium anomalum Schltr. in possessing spurs which diverge markedly from the ovary, but differs in its lesser stature, the fewer flowered inflorescences and the presence of foliage leaves at the base of the flowering stem instead of on separate sterile shoots. This assemblage of characters gives it a distinct and easily recognizable facies not found in any other tropical member of sect. Chlorocory
Distribution:
SW. Tanzania

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Satyrium johnsonii Rolfe in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 7: 265 (1898).
Description:
A terrestrial herb 1.5-3 dm. high, glabrous except for the roots; tubers ellipsoid or cylindrical-ellipsoid, 13-18 mm. long, 7-12 mm. in diameter, ± tomentose; roots slender, flexuous, sparsely pubescent. Stem erect, slender, terete, with I or 2 basal leaves and several sheaths almost covering it. Basal leaves adpressed to the ground, lanceolate, ovate or almost orbicular, acute or shortly acuminate, 1.5-4 cm. long and broad; sheathing leaves 4-6, often slightly overlapping, lanceolate, acute, 1.5-4 cm. long. Inflorescence 3-7 cm. long, 2-2.5 cm. in diameter, densely to rather laxly 8-13-flowered; bracts erect at first, reflexed later, lanceolate, acuminate, 1-2 cm. long, the lower ones longer than the flowers. Flowers suberect or half-spreading, yellow, slightly fragrant; pedicel with ovary curved, 7-8 mm. long. Sepals and petals spreading forwards or somewhat deflexed, united with one another and with the lip at the base for ± 1-2.5 mm.; intermediate sepal narrowly oblanceolate-oblong, rounded at apex, 5-5-7 mm. long, 1.5 mm. broad; laterals obliquely oblong-elliptical, obtuse, ± 7 mm. long, nearly 2 mm. broad. Petals similar to intermediate sepal but narrower, 5-6 mm. long; all tepals 3-veined. Lip erect, very concave and hooded with a short recurved apex, 6-6.5 mm. long, nearly as broad when spread out, 2-spurred at the base; spurs slender, cylindrical, 12-15 mm. long, ± 1 mm. in diameter near the base. Column erect, ± 5 mm. high, the stalk slender; anther-loculi ellipsoid; stigma semi-orbicular, rostellum broad, shortly 3-toothed, the middle tooth bifid.
Habitat:
Open upland grassland, rock crevices, etc.; 2550 m.
Note:
The type gathering may have been made on the Matengo Hills in Songea District or farther south in Mozambique; the species should be looked for in the former area.
Cultivation:
As given for the genus.
Distribution:
SW. & S. Tanzania
References:
Flora of Tropical East Africa Summerhayes Orchidaceae Part 1 1968