AFRICAN

ORCHIDS

Zeuxine stammleri Schltr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 38: 151 (1906).
Homotypic Synonyms:
Hetaeria stammleri (Schltr.) Summerh., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1934: 208 (1934).
Description:
Rhizome creeping. Stem 14-40 cm tall, erect, delicate, above the leaves sparsely glandular, denser above. Leaves gathered near the base, 3-9, petiolate; petiole with sheath 1.2-2.5 cm long; blade 3-8 cm long, 1-3.5 cm wide, ovate to elliptic, asymmetric, acute. Cauline bracts 4-5, up to I cm long, herbaceous with hyaline margins, ovate, acute, glabrous, amplexicaul, shorter than internodes. Inflorescence 2.5-10 cm long, up to 25-flowered, dull pale pink. Flowers nonresupinate, small, perianth greenish pink and white. Floral bract 4-12 mm long, ovate-lanceolate, acute, delicate, near the base sparsely glandular outside, reddish tinged. Ovary 6-7 mm long, glandular. Dorsal sepal 3-4.5 mm long, 2-2.5 mm wide, ovate to oblong-ovate, subobtuse, delicate, sparsely glandular outside, 3-nerved. Lateral sepals of the same size, obliquely ovate, subacute, delicate, sparsely glandular outside, 3-nerved. Petals 3-4.5 mm long, 1.2-1.5 mm wide, linear in the lower part, oblong-elliptic above, obtuse, very thin, delicate, single-nerved. Lip sessile, constricted near the apex; basal part 2.5-3 mm long, 1.3 mm wide, deeply cochleate with fleshy projections inside near the base, oblong-ovate in general outline, distinctly thickened towards the apex, margins involute in basal half, supervolutive in apical half; epichile 0.3 mm long, I mm wide, transversely rhomboid, with shallow groove in the center, side lobes acute.
Habitat:
Lowland forests with Entandro-phragma spp., Terminalia superba Engl. & Diels., and Megaphrynium macrostachyum (Benth.) Milne-Redh., in shade. December-February, June-Sep-tember.
Cultivation:
As given for the genus, hot to warm growing terrestrial.
Distribution:
Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko), Sao Tomé and Principe (Principe), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, the Republic of Congo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaire). Alt. 0-900 m.
References:
Orchidaceae of West-central Africa, vol. 1, Gdansk University Press Gdansk 2010















Zeuxine lunulata P.J.Cribb & J.Bowden, Kew Bull. 34: 327 (1979).
Heterotypic Synonyms:
Cheirostylis schliebenii Mansf. ex Schlieb., Gartenflora 86: 58 (1937), no Latin descr.
Description:
Perennial herb up to 25 cm. high; rhizome elongate, creeping and rooting. Leaves 7-9, ovate, decreasing in size up the stem; lamina 3.5—5 cm. long, 1.5-2 cm. broad; petiole up to 2.2 cm. long, broadening at the base to form a membranous sheath; internodes 1.2 cm. at base of stem, decreasing to 2 mm. Scape up to 15 cm. long including inflorescence, tomentose, with 2 or 3 acuminate sheaths. Raceme up to 3 cm. long, with up to 10 flowers; bracts longer than the ovary, up to 1 cm. long, acuminate, tomentose. Flowers white, at right-angles to the ovary. Dorsal sepal ovate, acuminate, 6 mm. long, 3 mm. broad, outer surface tomentose. Lateral sepals free, ovate-oblique, acuminate, 6 mm. long, 2 mm. broad, outer surface tomentose. Petals connivent with dorsal sepal to form a hood, apices free, ovate-lanceolate, 5.5 mm. long, 1.75 mm. broad. Lip: hypochile pandurate, concave, margins involute, 3.5 mm. long, 2 mm. broad, with 2 hooked calli at the base; epichile oblong-lunulate, 3.5 mm. broad, 1 mm. long. Column 3 mm. long, broadest at the base with 2 small triangular flaps; rostellar arms elongate, straight; pollinia pyriform; caudicle with involute margins; viscidium oval.
Habitat:
On rocks in shade at elevations of 700 to 1100 meters.
Distribution:
Tanzania (Nguru Mts.)
References:
Flora of Tropical East Africa Orchidaceae Part 2 Cribb 1984















Zeuxine africana Rchb.f., Flora 50: 103 (1867).
Heterotypic Synonyms:
Zeuxine cochlearis Schltr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 20(50): 11 (1895).
Description:
A herb with a sometimes creeping rhizome and tbick brownhairy roots, for the rest quite glabrous; stem erect terete leafy, scaly at base, 5-30 cm. high; leaves erect-spreading linearlanceolate acute, amplexicaul and sheathing at base, netted-veined when dry, 2-4 times longer than the internodes, 2-5 cm. long; spike oblong or narrow ovate, densely many-fl., 1-5-2-5 cm. long, bracts acuminate longer than the flowers; flowers somewhat bent downwards, about 2-5-3 mill, long; sepals connivent ovate-lanceolate subobtuse, the odd one more concave and slightly gibbous at the base ; petals semi-ovate, the exterior margin undulate; lip somewhat fleshy spoon-shaped inflated at base, rather widened at the apex, margins incurved undulate and irregularly crenulate, furnished at the base within with 2 parallel linear ridges; anther rounded ; rostellum bipartite, the segments subulate acuminate; pollinia pear-shaped, stipes strap-shaped dilated towards the apex; gland very small.
Notes:
Colour of sepals and petals white, the lip golden yellow.
Habitat:
Moist sand in grassland; in mud in shade.
Distribution:
Nigeria, Angola, S. Africa

Images:
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Botanical Drawing / Herbarium
zeuxine africana
Photograph copyright Swiss Orchid Foundation at the Herbarium Jany Renz Image used with kind permission.

Zeuxine gilgiana Kraenzl. & Schltr., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 38: 150 (1906).
Description:
Rhizome ca. 9 cm long, 3 mm in diameter, creeping. Stem up to 26 cm tall, erect, delicate, densely glandular above leaves. Leaves gathered in the lower part of the stem, 3-5, falling at flowering time; petiole and sheath 9-15 mm long; blade 3.3-5.5 cm long, 1.2-2.1 cm wide, obliquely ovate-lanceolate, acute. Cauline bracts 2-3, up to 14 mm long, ovate-lanceolate, acute, amplexicaul, thin, densely glandular outside. Inflorescence 8-10 cm long, 20-30-flowered, lax in the lower and dense in the upper part. Flowers small, resupinate, tubular, perianth segments pale green and pink, lip bright orange to orange-red. Floral bract 6-7 mm long, ovate-lanceolate, acute, thin, membraneous, glandular outside. Pedicel ca. 0.6 mm long, twisted. Ovary 5 mm long, narrow, glandular. Sepals thin, delicate, rather densely glandular outside. Dorsal sepal 1.8-3.6 mm long, 1.2-2 mm wide, ovate, attenuate towards apex, cochleate, sometimes cucullate at the apex, subobtuse, single-nerved. Lateral sepals 2.1-3.1 mm long, 0.9-1.1 mm wide, obliquely oblong-ovate, obtuse to subacute, cochleate, sometimes cucullate, single-nerved. Petals 1.8-3.5 mm long, 0.4-1.2 mm wide, obliquely ovate-lanceolate, subacute, agglutinate to dorsal sepal, singlenerved. Lip sessile, constricted in the apical third; basal part 1.6-2 mm long, 0.9-1 mm wide, saccate with two fleshy, large projections inside, oblong-ovate in general outline, with involute margins, thickened towards apex; apical part 0.8-1 mm long, 2-2.5 mm wide, reniform, sometimes with small apiculus.
Habitat:
Gallery forests, rain-forests. Novem-ber-February, June-August.
Cultivation:
As given for the genus.
Distribution:
Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Annobon, Bioko), Gabon, the Repubhc of Congo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaire). Alt. 300-1500 m.
References:
Orchidaceae of West-central Africa, vol. 1, Gdansk University Press Gdansk 2010















Zeuxine ballii P.J.Cribb, Kew Bull. 32: 150 (1977).
Description:
Terrestrial herb 12–24 cm tall; stem creeping at the base and rooting at the nodes, the upper part erect, leafy, covered with white spots, 4–5 mm in diameter. Leaves c. 8, spirally arranged, light green with reticulate veining; lamina 2.6–6 × 1.3–2.6 cm, ovate, acute, glabrous; petiole 1–2 cm long, widening into a sheathing base. Inflorescence terminal; rhachis 3–7 cm long, laxly 3–8-flowered with flowers more or less secund; ovary and pedicel 8–9 mm long; bracts up to 8 mm long, ovate, acuminate, margins ciliate. Peduncle, rhachis, ovary, bracts and sepals densely pubescent; sepals green, petals brownish, lip white, orange or yellow at the base. Dorsal sepal 6–7 × 3–3.5 mm, ovate, convex; lateral sepals 5–7 × 1.8–2.5 mm, obliquely lanceolate or ovate. Petals 4–6 × 2–2.2 mm, adnate to the dorsal sepal and forming a hood with it.Lip 6–8 mm long; hypochile narrow and channelled; epichile 3–3.5 mm long and 5.5–7 mm wide, transversely oblong, slightly emarginate. Column 3–3.5 mm long, including rostellum.
Notes:
Plants in the Malawi locality produce flower buds during the late rains and these develop very slowly. In the dry season the colony dies back completely. Presumably flowering takes place in the wild only when the rains are unusually prolonged and the habitat does not dry out completely.
Habitat:
Riverine forest, in deep shade in leaf litter, rooting near the surface 300–1330 m.
Distribution:
Malawi to Zimbabwe

Images:
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Botanical Drawing / Herbarium
zeuxine ballii
Photograph copyright Swiss Orchid Foundation at the Herbarium Jany Renz Image used with kind permission.