AFRICAN

ORCHIDS

Cephalanthera longifolia (L.) Fritsch, Oesterr. Bot. Z. 38: 81 (1888).
Homotypic Synonyms:
Serapias helleborine var. longifolia L., Sp. Pl.: 950 (1753).
Serapias grandiflora L., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, 2: 594 (1767), nom. illeg.
Serapias longifolia (L.) Scop., Fl. Carniol., ed. 2, 2: 202 (1772), nom. illeg.
Serapias lonchophyllum L.f., Suppl. Pl.: 405 (1782), nom. illeg.
Serapias xiphophyllum Ehrh. ex L.f., Suppl. Pl.: 404 (1782).
Serapias ensifolia Murray, Syst. Veg. ed. 14: 815 (1784), nom. illeg.
Serapias nivea Vill., Hist. Pl. Dauphiné 2: 52 (1787), nom. illeg.
Epipactis ensifolia F.W.Schmidt, Samml. Phys.-Ökon. Aufs. 1: 251 (1795).
Epipactis grandiflora (L.) Sm., Engl. Bot.: 271 (1795).
Cymbidium xiphophyllum (Ehrh. ex L.f.) Sw., J. Bot. (Schrader) 2: 226 (1799).
Epipactis pallens Sw., Neues J. Bot. 1: 65 (1805), nom. illeg.
Epipactis xiphophylla (Ehrh. ex L.f.) Sw., Neues J. Bot. 1: 65 (1805).
Serapias pallida Wahlenb., Fl. Carpat. Princ.: 291 (1814).
Cephalanthera ensifolia Rich., De Orchid. Eur.: 38 (1817), nom. illeg.
Cephalanthera pallens Rich., De Orchid. Eur.: 38 (1817).
Cephalanthera grandiflora Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 210 (1821), nom. illeg.
Cephalanthera lonchophylla Rchb.f. in H.G.L.Reichenbach, Icon. Fl. Germ. Helv. 13-14: t. 119 (1851), nom. illeg.
Cephalanthera xiphophyllum Rchb.f. in H.G.L.Reichenbach, Icon. Fl. Germ. Helv. 13-14: 135 (1851), nom. illeg.
Limodorum grandiflorum (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 671 (1891), nom. illeg.
Limodorum longifolium (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 671 (1891), nom. illeg.
Cephalanthera longifolia f. angustifolia Maire & Weiller in R.C.J.Maire, Fl. Afr. Nord 6: 359 (1959), nom. illeg.
Heterotypic Synonyms:
Epipactis grandifolia All., Fl. Pedem. 2: 152 (1785).
Epipactis pallida Sw., Kongl. Vetensk. Acad. Nya Handl. 21: 232 (1800).
Cephalanthera acuminata Wall. ex Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 412 (1840).
Cephalanthera maravignae Tineo in G.Gussone, Fl. Sicul. Syn. 2: 877 (1844).
Cephalanthera thomsonii Rchb.f., Linnaea 41: 54 (1876).
Cephalanthera ensifolia var. maravignae (Tineo) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 687 (1882).
Cephalanthera angustifolia Simonk., Enum. Fl. Transsilv.: 505 (1887).
Limodorum acuminatum (Wall. ex Lindl.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 671 (1891).
Cephalanthera longifolia var. pilosa Harz in D.F.L.von Schlechtendal, Fl. Deutschl. ed. 5 4: 30 (1896).
Cephalanthera xiphophyllum var. latifolia Maire, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 5: 239 (1914).
Cephalanthera ensifolia var. cesari-gonzalezii Rivas Goday & Bellot, Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 6: 191 (1948).
Cephalanthera longifolia f. latifolia (Maire) Maire & Weiller in R.C.J.Maire, Fl. Afr. Nord 6: 359 (1959).
Cephalanthera longifolia var. latifolia (Maire) D.Rivera & Lopez Velez, Orquíd. Prov. Albacete: 55 (1987).
Cephalanthera longifolia var. rosea Perko, Ber. Arbeitskreis. Heimische Orchid. 19: 9 (2002).
Cephalanthera conferta (B.Baumann & H.Baumann) Kreutz, Eurorchis 17: 104 (2005).
Cephalanthera longifolia subsp. conferta B.Baumann & H.Baumann, J. Eur. Orch. 37: 249 (2005).
Description:
Herbs terrestrial, autotrophic, 20--47 cm tall. Stem erect, below middle with 3--5 loosely arranged sheaths. Leaves 4--7; leaf blade lanceolate, broadly lanceolate, or oblong-lanceolate, (2.5--)4--13 X 0.5--2.5 cm, base clasping, apex long acuminate or acuminate. Raceme 1.5--6 cm, 2--13-flowered; floral bracts linear-lanceolate to narrowly triangular, 2--6 mm, but lowest 1 or 2 leaflike, to 5--13 cm. Flowers slightly or not opening. Sepals narrowly rhombic-elliptic or narrowly elliptic-lanceolate, 1.1--1.6 cm X 3.5--4.5 mm, 5-veined, apex acuminate or subacute. Petals white, subobovate, 7--8 X ca. 4 mm, apex acute or mucronate; labellum 5--6 mm, base saccate, 3-lobed; lateral lobes subovate-triangular, +/- embracing column; midlobe triangular-cordate, 3--3.5 X 5--6 mm, with 3 or 4 lamellae densely papillose towards tip; saccate base short and obtuse, enclosed in bases of lateral sepals. Column 4--5 mm. Capsule elliptic, 1.7--2 cm, 6--8 mm in diam. 2n = 32, 34.
Habitat:
Mediterranean forest communities, especially of pine or oak.
Flowering:
April-May.
Distribution:
Europe, Medit. to C. China
References:
Sue Parker (2016) Wild Orchids of Wales - how, when and where to find them; First Nature; Chris Thorogood and Simon Hiscock (2014) Field Guide to the Wildflowers of the Algarve; Kew Publishing; Anne and Simon Harrap (2005) Orchids of Britain and Ireland; A&C Black; Pierre Delforge (2005) Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East; A&C Black
Images:
Click on each image to see a larger version.

Habitat/In situ  Habitat/In situ  Habitat/In situ 
cephalanthera longifolia  cephalanthera longifolia 02  cephalanthera longifolia. close up 
Photograph© Rogier
van Vugt. Image used
with kind permission. 
Photograph© Rogier
van Vugt. Image used
with kind permission. 
Photograph© Rogier
van Vugt. Image used
with kind permission.