AFRICAN

ORCHIDS

Calanthe triplicata (Willemet) Ames, Philipp. J. Sci., C 2: 326 (1907).
Homotypic Synonyms:
Orchis triplicata Willemet, Ann. Bot. (Usteri) 18: 52 (1796).
Limodorum veratrifolium Willd., Sp. Pl. 4: 122 (1805), nom. superfl.
Calanthe veratrifolia R.Br. ex Ker Gawl., Bot. Reg. 9: t. 720 (1823), nom. superfl.
Amblyglottis veratrifolia Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind.: 370 (1825), nom. superfl.
Alismorkis veratrifolia Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 650 (1891), nom. superfl.
Heterotypic Synonyms:
Limodorum ventricosum Steud., Nomencl. Bot.: 481 (1821).
Calanthe furcata Bateman ex Lindl., Edwards's Bot. Reg. 24(Misc.): 28 (1838).
Calanthe veratrifolia var. lilacina Hassk., Flora 25(2, Beibl. 1): 7 (1842).
Calanthe veratrifolia var. australis Linden, Paxton's Fl. Gard. 2: 133 (1851).
Calanthe gracillima Lindl., Fol. Orchid. 6: 8 (1855).
Calanthe catilligera Rchb.f., Bonplandia (Hannover) 5: 37 (1857).
Calanthe veratrifolia var. stenochila Rchb.f., Hamburger Garten- Blumenzeitung 13: 313 (1857).
Calanthe triantherifera Nadeaud, Énum. Pl. Tahiti: 38 (1873).
Calanthe angraeciflora Rchb.f., Linnaea 41: 75 (1876).
Calanthe petri Rchb.f., Gard. Chron., n.s., 14: 326 (1880).
Calanthe bracteosa Rchb.f., Flora 65: 533 (1882).
Calanthe anchorifera Rchb.f., Gard. Chron., n.s., 19: 166 (1883).
Calanthe proboscidea Rchb.f., Gard. Chron., n.s., 21: 476 (1884).
Calanthe colorans Rchb.f., Gard. Chron., n.s., 23: 360 (1885).
Bletia quadrifida Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 851 (1890), not validly publ.
Calanthe diploxiphion Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 849 (1890).
Alismorkis angraeciflora (Rchb.f.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 650 (1891).
Alismorkis diploxiphion (Hook.f.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 650 (1891).
Alismorkis furcata (Bateman ex Lindl.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 650 (1891).
Alismorkis gracillima (Lindl.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 650 (1891).
Calanthe matsumurana Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 2: 168 (1906).
Calanthe brevicolumna Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 30(1): 328 (1911).
Calanthe nephroglossa Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 9: 99 (1911).
Calanthe orthocentron Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 1: 380 (1912).
Calanthe veratrifolia var. kennyi F.M.Bailey, Queensland Agric. J. 28: 276 (1912).
Calanthe anthropophora Ridl., J. Fed. Malay States Mus. 5: 167 (1915).
Calanthe veratrifolia var. dupliciloba J.J.Sm., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 5: 69 (1922).
Calanthe pubescens Ridl., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1923: 117 (1923).
Calanthe breviflos Ridl., J. Bot. 63(Suppl.): 117 (1925).
Calanthe triplicata var. minahassae Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 21: 177 (1925).
Calanthe veratrifolia var. timorensis J.J.Sm., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 36: 110 (1934).
Calanthe furcata f. albolineata K.Nakaj., J. Geobot. 17: 81 (1969).
Calanthe furcata f. albomarginata K.Nakaj., J. Geobot. 17: 55 (1969).
Calanthe furcata f. brevicolumna (Hayata) M.Hiroe, Orchid Flowers 2: 87 (1971).
Calanthe triplicata f. albolineata (K.Nakaj.) Hatus., Fl. Ryukyus: 862 (1971).
Calanthe triplicata f. albomarginata (K.Nakaj.) K.Nakaj., Biol. Mag. 10: 29 (1973).
Calanthe rubicallosa Masam., J. Geobot. 23(2): t. 7 (1975).
Calanthe triplicata var. angraeciflora (Rchb.f.) N.Hallé, Fl. Nouv.-Caléd. 8: 230 (1977).
Calanthe triplicata f. purpureoflora S.S.Ying, Coloured Illustr. Orchid Fl. Taiwan 2: 127 (1990), no type indicated.
Calanthe triplicata var. gracillima (Lindl.) N.Hallé, Fragm. Florist. Geobot. 43: 41 (1998).
Calanthe australasica D.L.Jones & M.A.Clem., Austral. Orchid Res. 5: 8 (2006).
Description:
Terrestrial herb with clumping habit. Pseudobulbs crowded, erect, ovoid, 4-8 cm x 2-4 cm, fleshy. Leaves 4-9 per pseudobulb, erect, whorled, apical, petioles 8-20 cm long, bases sheathing stem, fleshy, channelled; lamina broadly elliptic to obovate, 40-90 cm x 10-18 cm, dark green, plicate, margins entire to undulate, apex acute to acuminate. Inflorescence an axillary raceme, 500-1500 mm tall, from lower axils, green, fleshy; pedicels long. Flowers numerous, crowded toward inflorescence apex, resupinate, porrect to nodding, 25-35 mm wide, white, readily bruising purplish. Sepals and petals spreading widely, sepals broader than petals. Dorsal sepal free, erect, ovate to elliptic, 10-12 mm x 6-7 mm, apex acuminate. Lateral sepals free, broadly ovate to obovate, 11-13 mm x 6-7 mm, apex acuminate to aristate. Petals obliquely erect, obovate, 8-10 mm x 3-4 mm, apex acute. Labellum prominent, porrect to decurved, longer than dorsal sepal, deeply 3-lobed; lateral lobes curved, widely divergent, linear-oblong, 8 mm long; midlobe deeply emarginate, lobes widely divergent, falcate, oblong, c. 12 mm long, apex obliquely truncate. Callus yellow. Spur narrow, cylindrical, curved, 20 mm long. Column 5-7 mm long, porrect from end of ovary. Column foot absent. Capsules pendulous, obovoid, 40 mm long, green, shiny, dehiscent.
Colours:
Leaves dark green, sometimes with a paler venation. Flowers white with a yellow or red basal callus on the lip.
Habitat:
Occurs in rainforests, and in more open habitats near streams and on sheltered slopes. It grows in leaf litter and humus-rich soils in shady locations in forest, and is often seen perched on litter-covered boulders, rotting logs and stumps.
Flowering time in the wild:
January, March, April, May, June, July, September, October, December.
Cultivation:
Read more of Cultivation of Calanthe triplicata (Willemet) Ames
Distribution:
Mauritus, Madagascar, Seychelles, Assam, eastern Himalayas, lower India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia Laos, Cambodia, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan and Yunnan provinces of China, Hong Kong, Vietnam, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Bismark Islands, New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Norfolk Island, New South Wales, and Queensland Australia, Fiji, New Caledonia, Samoa, Vanuatu, Wallis & Futna, Marquesas, Santa Cruz Islands, Caroline Islands, the Marianas Islands, Taiwan and the Ryukyu Islands
References:
Flora Malesiana: Orchids of New Guinea
Images:
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Habitat/In situ 
calanthe triplicata 
Photograph© Rogier
van Vugt. Image used
with kind permission.